1—list of interventions for “regime change”
– with addition 2017
2—list of air warfare campaigns
3—list of client states
4—list of states held by debt-leverage imperialism
5—list of foreign base hosts
6—list of murder toll
7—list of unsavory rightists supported
8—list of perverted international bodies
9—list of interventions for opposing liberation
10—list of interventions pre-1941
11—list of covert operations
12—list of front organizations
13—list of low intensity conflicts
14—list of proxy wars
15—list of foreign policy doctrines
16—list of propaganda campaigns
1. Chronological list of interventions, with the purpose of effecting “regime change,” attempted or materially supported by the United States—whether primarily by means of overt force (OF), covert operation (CO), or subverted election (SE):
a) OF and SE imply, necessarily, prior and continuing CO.
b) OF = directly applied state terrorism by the United States repressive apparatus i.e. the Departments of War/Defense, Energy, Treasury, and State. N.B. the formation of the National Security Council (1947) and the Office of Homeland Security (2002).
c) CO = reconnaissance, classical coups d’etat, legal harassment, disinformation (through media, legal, NGO, student, labor, and other front groups), bribery, sabotage, assassination, proxy warfare, running ratlines for fascist émigré groups, and assorted other clandestine activities.
d) SE = a particular species of CO, comparatively non-violent, high plausible deniability, usually involves dumping tons of cash and campaign technologies into the hands of rightist groups during elections, sowing discord in leftist parties, buying up media space in order to destabilize electorates, tampering directly with ballot results, and hiring jackboots to actively threaten and brutalize voters in the last resort. NB many subverted elections are preceded by lengthy terror campaigns (e.g. Nicaragua, El Salvador, Yugoslavia, etc).
It should go without saying that the following entries are simplified; only the major “payoff” year is listed, where applicable. Most attempted overthrows were preceded by lengthy preparations—vast right wing conspiracies, indeed. NB that this list remains under construction; new data will be added in the next installment.
[Date – place (head of targeted state/candidate in subverted election; political affiliation): outcome (means)]
The * indicates that I’m not clever enough to have found the absent data yet. Apologies.
“Neutralist” refers to a given regime’s desire to avoid taking sides with either power bloc in the cold war. It should be readily apparent that such is an unforgivable sin against the foreign policy establishment in the United States.
“Nationalist” refers to a given regime’s desire to nationalize foreign-owned means of production within its national boundaries. It should be readily apparent that such is an unforgivable sin against the foreign policy establishment in the United States.
1893 – Hawaii (Liliuokalani; monarchist): success (OF)
1912 – China (Piyu; monarchist): success (OF)
1918 – Panama (Arias; center-right): success (SE)
1919 – Hungary (Kun; communist): success (CO)
1920 – USSR (Lenin; communist): failure (OF)
1924 – Honduras (Carias; nationalist): success (SE)
1934 – United States (Roosevelt; liberal): failure (CO)
1945 – Japan (Higashikuni; rightist): success (OF)
1946 – Thailand (Pridi; conservative): success (CO)
1946 – Argentina (Peron; military/centrist): failure (SE)
1947 – France (*; communist): success (SE)
1947 – Philippines (*; center-left): success (SE)
1947 – Romania (Gheorghiu-Dej; stalinist): failure (CO)
1948 – Italy (*, communist): success (SE)
1948 – Colombia (Gaitan; populist/leftist): success (SE)
1948 – Peru (Bustamante; left/centrist): success (CO)
1949 – Syria (Kuwatli; neutralist/Pan-Arabist): success (CO)
1949 – China (Mao; communist): failure (CO)
1950 – Albania (Hoxha; communist): failure (CO)
1951 – Bolivia (Paz; center/neutralist): success (CO)
1951 – DPRK (Kim; stalinist): failure (OF)
1951 – Poland (Cyrankiewicz; stalinist): failure (CO)
1951 – Thailand (Phibun; conservative): success (CO)
1952 – Egypt (Farouk; monarchist): success (CO)
1952 – Cuba (Prio; reform/populist): success (CO)
1952 – Lebanon (*; left/populist): success: (SE)
1953 – British Guyana (*; left/populist): success (CO)
1953 – Iran (Mossadegh; liberal nationalist): success (CO)
1953 – Costa Rica (Figueres; reform liberal): failure (CO)
1953 – Philippines (*; center-left): success (SE)
1954 – Guatemala (Arbenz; liberal nationalist): success (OF)
1955 – Costa Rica (Figueres; reform liberal): failure (CO)
1955 – India (Nehru; neutralist/socialist): failure (CO)
1955 – Argentina (Peron; military/centrist): success (CO)
1955 – China (Zhou; communist): failure (CO)
1955 – Vietnam (Ho; communist): success (SE)
1956 – Hungary (Hegedus; communist): success (CO)
1957 – Egypt (Nasser; military/nationalist): failure (CO)
1957 – Haiti (Sylvain; left/populist): success (CO)
1957 – Syria (Kuwatli; neutralist/Pan-Arabist): failure (CO)
1958 – Japan (*; left-center): success (SE)
1958 – Chile (*; leftists): success (SE)
1958 – Iraq (Feisal; monarchist): success (CO)
1958 – Laos (Phouma; nationalist): success (CO)
1958 – Sudan (Sovereignty Council; nationalist): success (CO)
1958 – Lebanon (*; leftist): success (SE)
1958 – Syria (Kuwatli; neutralist/Pan-Arabist): failure (CO)
1958 – Indonesia (Sukarno; militarist/neutralist): failure (SE)
1959 – Laos (Phouma; nationalist): success (CO)
1959 – Nepal (*; left-centrist): success (SE)
1959 – Cambodia (Sihanouk; moderate/neutralist): failure (CO)
1960 – Ecuador (Ponce; left/populist): success (CO)
1960 – Laos (Phouma; nationalist): success (CO)
1960 – Iraq (Qassem; rightist /militarist): failure (CO)
1960 – S. Korea (Syngman; rightist): success (CO)
1960 – Turkey (Menderes; liberal): success (CO)
1961 – Haiti (Duvalier; rightist/militarist): success (CO)
1961 – Cuba (Castro; communist): failure (CO)
1961 – Congo (Lumumba; leftist/pan-Africanist): success (CO)
1961 – Dominican Republic (Trujillo; rightwing/military): success (CO)
1962 – Brazil (Goulart; liberal/neutralist): failure (SE)
1962 – Dominican Republic (*; left/populist): success (SE)
1962 – Indonesia (Sukarno; militarist/neutralist): failure (CO)
1963 – Dominican Republic (Bosch; social democrat): success (CO)
1963 – Honduras (Montes; left/populist): success (CO)
1963 – Iraq (Qassem; militarist/rightist): success (CO)
1963 – S. Vietnam (Diem; rightist): success (CO)
1963 – Cambodia (Sihanouk; moderate/neutralist): failure (CO)
1963 – Guatemala (Ygidoras; rightist/reform): success (CO)
1963 – Ecuador (Velasco; reform militarist): success (CO)
1963 – United States (Kennedy; liberal): success (CO)
1964 – Guyana (Jagan; populist/reformist): success (CO)
1964 – Bolivia (Paz; centrist/neutralist): success (CO)
1964 – Brazil (Goulart; liberal/neutralist): success (CO)
1964 – Chile (Allende; social democrat/marxist): success (SE)
1965 – Indonesia (Sukarno; militarist/neutralist): success (CO)
1966 – Ghana (Nkrumah; leftist/pan-Africanist): success (CO)
1966 – Bolivia (*; leftist): success (SE)
1966 – France (de Gaulle; centrist): failure (CO)
1967 – Greece (Papandreou; social democrat): success (CO)
1968 – Iraq (Arif; rightist): success (CO)
1969 – Panama (Torrijos; military/reform populist): failure (CO)
1969 – Libya (Idris; monarchist): success (CO)
1970 – Bolivia (Ovando; reform nationalist): success (CO)
1970 – Cambodia (Sihanouk; moderate/neutralist): success (CO)
1970 – Chile (Allende; social democrat/Marxist): failure (SE)
1971 – Bolivia (Torres; nationalist/neutralist): success (CO)
1971 – Costa Rica (Figueres; reform liberal): failure (CO)
1971 – Liberia (Tubman; rightist): success (CO)
1971 – Turkey (Demirel; center-right): success (CO)
1971 – Uruguay (Frente Amplio; leftist): success (SE)
1972 – El Salvador (*; leftist): success (SE)
1972 – Australia (Whitlam; liberal/labor): failure (SE)
1973 – Chile (Allende; social democrat/Marxist): success (CO)
1974 – United States (Nixon; centrist): success (CO)
1975 – Australia (Whitlam; liberal/labor): success (CO)
1975 – Congo (Mobutu; military/rightist): failure (CO)
1975 – Bangladesh (Mujib; nationalist): success (CO)
1976 – Jamaica (Manley; social democrat): failure (SE)
1976 – Portugal (JNS; military/leftist): success (SE)
1976 – Nigeria (Mohammed; military/nationalist): success (CO)
1976 – Thailand (*; rightist): success (CO)
1976 – Uruguay (Bordaberry; center-right): success (CO)
1977 – Pakistan (Bhutto: center/nationalist): success (CO)
1978 – Dominican Republic (Balaguer; center): success (SE)
1979 – S. Korea (Park; rightist): success (CO)
1979 – Nicaragua (Sandinistas; leftist): failure (CO)
1980 – Bolivia (Siles; centrist/reform): success (CO)
1980 – Iran (Khomeini; Islamic nationalist): failure (CO)
1980 – Italy (*; leftist): success (SE)
1980 – Liberia (Tolbert; rightist): success (CO)
1980 – Jamaica (Manley; social democrat): success (SE)
1980 – Dominica (Seraphin; leftist): success (SE)
1980 – Turkey (Demirel; center-right): success (CO)
1981 – Seychelles (René; socialist): failure (CO)
1981 – Spain (Suarez; rightist/neutralist): failure (CO)
1981 – Panama (Torrijos; military/reform populist); success (CO)
1981 – Zambia (Kaunda; reform nationalist): failure (CO)
1982 – Mauritius (*; center-left): failure (SE)
1982 – Spain (Suarez; rightist/neutralist): success (SE)
1982 – Iran (Khomeini; Islamic nationalist): failure (CO)
1982 – Chad (Oueddei; Islamic nationalist): success (CO)
1983 – Mozambique (Machel; socialist): failure (CO)
1983 – Grenada (Bishop; socialist): success (OF)
1984 – Panama (*; reform/centrist): success (SE)
1984 – Nicaragua (Sandinistas; leftist): failure (SE)
1984 – Surinam (Bouterse; left/reformist/neutralist): success (CO)
1984 – India (Gandhi; nationalist): success (CO)
1986 – Libya (Qaddafi; Islamic nationalist): failure (OF)
1987 – Fiji (Bavrada; liberal): success (CO)
1989 – Panama (Noriega; military/reform populist): success (OF)
1990 – Haiti (Aristide; liberal reform): failure (SE)
1990 – Nicaragua (Ortega; Christian socialist): success (SE)
1991 – Albania (Alia; communist): success (SE)
1991 – Haiti (Aristide; liberal reform): success (CO)
1991 – Iraq (Hussein; military/rightist): failure (OF)
1991 – Bulgaria (BSP; communist): success (SE)
1992 – Afghanistan (Najibullah; communist): success (CO)
1993 – Somalia (Aidid; right/militarist): failure (OF)
1993 – Cambodia (Han Sen/CPP; leftist): failure (SE)
1993 – Burundi (Ndadaye; conservative): success (CO)
1993 – Azerbaijan (Elchibey; reformist): success (CO)
1994 – El Salvador (*; leftist): success (SE)
1994 – Rwanda (Habyarimana; conservative): success (CO)
1994 – Ukraine (Kravchuk; center-left): success (SE)
1995 – Iraq (Hussein; military/rightist): failure (CO)
1996 – Bosnia (Karadzic; centrist): success (CO)
1996 – Russia (Zyuganov; communist): success (SE)
1996 – Congo (Mobutu; military/rightist): success (CO)
1996 – Mongolia (*; center-left): success (SE)
1998 – Congo (Kabila; rightist/military): success (CO)
1998 – United States (Clinton; conservative): failure (CO)
1998 – Indonesia (Suharto; military/rightist): success (CO)
1999 – Yugoslavia (Milosevic; left/nationalist): success (SE)
2000 – United States (Gore; conservative): success (SE)
2000 – Ecuador (NSC; leftist): success: (CO)
2001 – Afghanistan (Omar; rightist/Islamist): success (OF)
2001 – Belarus (Lukashenko; leftist): failure (SE)
2001 – Nicaragua (Ortega; Christian socialist): success (SE)
2001 – Nepal (Birendra; nationalist/monarchist): success (CO)
2002 – Venezuela (Chavez; reform-populist): failure (CO)
2002 – Bolivia (Morales; leftist/MAS): success (SE)
2002 – Brazil (Lula; center-left): failure (SE)
We should keep in mind that the goals of the imperialist in each of these instances are multiple: acquisition of access to local “markets” of all varieties; imposition of neoliberal policy; destruction of any potential alternative to the techno-fascist ruling order; provision of incentive for a sprawling parasitical and parastatal medical-intelligence-military-industrial complex (MIMIC); production of official “villains” for propaganda purposes; intimidation of non-combatants (as in the year 1945), and continuing political hegemony of the transnational elite based in DC.
Overthrowing Other People’s Governments: The Master List of U.S. “Regime Changes”
By William Blum
Global Research – Editor’s Note
This incisive list of countries by William Blum was first published in 2013, posted on Global Research in 2014.
In relation to recent developments in Latin America and the Middle East, it is worth recalling the history of US sponsored military coups and “soft coups” aka regime changes.
In a bitter irony, under the so-called “Russia probe” the US is accusing Moscow of interfering in US politics.
This article reviews the process of overthrowing sovereign governments through military coups, acts of war, support of terrorist organizations, covert ops in support of regime change.
In recent developments, the Trump administration is supportive of a US sponsored regime change in Venezuela and Cuba
Michel Chossudovsky, June 24, 2017
* * *
Instances of the United States overthrowing, or attempting to overthrow, a foreign government since the Second World War.
(* indicates successful ouster of a government)
- China 1949 to early 1960s
- Albania 1949-53
- East Germany 1950s
- Iran 1953 *
- Guatemala 1954 *
- Costa Rica mid-1950s
- Syria 1956-7
- Egypt 1957
- Indonesia 1957-8
- British Guiana 1953-64 *
- Iraq 1963 *
- North Vietnam 1945-73
- Cambodia 1955-70 *
- Laos 1958 *, 1959 *, 1960 *
- Ecuador 1960-63 *
- Congo 1960 *
- France 1965
- Brazil 1962-64 *
- Dominican Republic 1963 *
- Cuba 1959 to present
- Bolivia 1964 *
- Indonesia 1965 *
- Ghana 1966 *
- Chile 1964-73 *
- Greece 1967 *
- Costa Rica 1970-71
- Bolivia 1971 *
- Australia 1973-75 *
- Angola 1975, 1980s
- Zaire 1975
- Portugal 1974-76 *
- Jamaica 1976-80 *
- Seychelles 1979-81
- Chad 1981-82 *
- Grenada 1983 *
- South Yemen 1982-84
- Suriname 1982-84
- Fiji 1987 *
- Libya 1980s
- Nicaragua 1981-90 *
- Panama 1989 *
- Bulgaria 1990 *
- Albania 1991 *
- Iraq 1991
- Afghanistan 1980s *
- Somalia 1993
- Yugoslavia 1999-2000 *
- Ecuador 2000 *
- Afghanistan 2001 *
- Venezuela 2002 *
- Iraq 2003 *
- Haiti 2004 *
- Somalia 2007 to present
- Libya 2011*
- Syria 2012
Global Research Editor’s note: To this list published in February 2013, we must add Ukraine, where Viktor Yanukovych was successfully ousted in February 2014.
2. Chronological list of US air warfare campaigns:
Japan (1943-45): conventional; incendiary; nuclear
China (1945-49): conventional; biological
Korea (1950-53): conventional; biological; chemical; incendiary
China (1951-52): conventional; biological; chemical
Guatemala (1954): conventional
Indonesia (1958): conventional
Cuba (1959-61): conventional; (biochemical attacks in other years)
Guatemala (1960): conventional
Vietnam (1961-73): conventional; chemical; biological; cluster
Congo (1964): conventional
Peru (1965): conventional
Laos (1964-73): conventional; chemical; biological; cluster
Guatemala (1967-69): conventional
Cambodia (1969-70): conventional; chemical; biological
Cambodia (1975): conventional
El Salvador (1980-89): conventional
Nicaragua (1980-89): conventional
Grenada (1983): conventional
Lebanon (1983-4): conventional
Syria (1984): conventional
Libya (1986): conventional
Iran (1987): conventional
Panama (1989): conventional; chemical; biological
Iraq (1991-2002): conventional; chemical; biological; cluster; DU
Kuwait (1991): conventional; chemical; biological; cluster; DU
Somalia (1993): conventional
Bosnia (1993-95): conventional; cluster; DU
Sudan (1998): conventional; biological
Afghanistan (1998): conventional
Yugoslavia (1999): conventional; chemical; biological; cluster; DU
Afghanistan (2001-02): conventional; chemical; biological; cluster; DU
3. Chronological list of US client states: [under construction]
1847 – Liberia: to present
1848 – Mexico: to 1911
1893 – Hawaii: to 1959
1899 – Cuba: to 1959
1903 – Dominican Republic: to present
1903 – Honduras: to present
1912 – China: to 1949
1922 – Italy: to 1941
1928 – Portugal: to 1974
1933 – Germany: to 1941
1939 – Spain: to present
1943 – Italy: to present
1944 – Saudi Arabia: to present
1945 – France: to 1965
1945 – Japan: to present
1945 – West Germany: to 1960
1945 – South Korea: to present
1945 – Burma: to 1962
1946 – Thailand: to present
1947 – Greece: to 1964
1947 – Turkey: to present
1948 – Israel: to present
1949 – Taiwan: to present
1950 – Colombia: to present
1952 – Australia: to present
1952 – Lebanon: to present
1952 – New Zealand: to 1985
1953 – Iran: to 1979
1954 – Guatemala: to present
1954 – Pakistan: to present
1959 – Paraguay: to present
1955 – South Vietnam: to 1975
1957 – Haiti: to present
1957 – Jordan: to present
1960 – Congo/Zaire: to present
1963 – Iraq: to 1990
1964 – Bolivia: to present
1964 – Brazil: to present
1965 – Greece: to present
1965 – Peru: to present
1966 – Central African Republic: to present
1969 – Oman: to present
1970 – Egypt: to present
1970 – Cambodia: to 1979
1970 – Uruguay: to present
1975 – Morocco: to present
1976 – Portugal: to present
1978 – Kenya: to present
1978 – S. Africa: to 1990
1979 – Yemen: to present
1979 – Somalia: to 1991
1982 – Chad: to present
1982 – Mexico: to present
1984 – Brunei: to present
1988 – Burma: to present
1992 – Angola: to 2002
1993 – Azerbaijan: to present
1993 – Eritrea: to present
1993 – Nigeria: to present
1994 – Ukraine: to present
1995 – Ethiopia: to present
2000 – Kyrgyzstan: to present
2001 – Afghanistan: to present
[all of Latin America (sans Mexico, Venezuela, Costa Rica, Cuba 1964-1990); a legion of others ]
4. Chronological list of states held in the manacles of debt-leverage imperialism:
N.B. these states are held in the thralldom of “odious debt” imposed upon them by (typically) quasi-fascistic regimes who 1) often enough were empowered via United States state terrorism and 2) accepted the terms of United States dominated Bretton Woods restructuring programs.
Many countries found themselves in dire monetary and fiscal straits in the early 1980s—after the Nixon shocks, the various oil embargoes, and the Volcker interest rate hikes. At this time of the debt crisis, the IMF and World Bank became “lenders of last resort” for regimes unable to meet balance of payments obligations to imperialist-controlled banks—but such lending comes with a cost: dismantle any and all policies that don’t adhere to the mystical mantras of neoliberalism (ie such policies as protectionism, capital regulation, state industry, wage control, labor and environmental regulation, resistance to currency devaluation, autochthonous/non-export production, etc had to go); such is the nature of the structural adjustment program (SAP).
Note further that these policies were the Reaganites’ answer to the “Crisis of Democracy” (as defined by the geniuses in the Trilateral Commission) that was occurring on a global scale and to the relative loss of US geopolitical power in the late 1970s. In order to disrupt the G-77, UNCTAD, and other international movements modeled on the success of OPEC, the debt crisis and its neoliberal response were engineered for the sake of ushering in a new world order of managed friggin’ chaos. It is good to recall that a number of countries that have refused SAP have been attacked (e.g., Serbia) and/or destabilized (e.g., Belarus). It is also prudent to realize that many an “ethnic,” “religious,” or otherwise vaguely described “civil” war has been caused directly by SAP (e.g., Somalia, Yugoslavia).
Moreover note that the meaning of “debt crisis” is that subjugated nations that were unable to meet balance of payments obligations to imperialist-controlled banks threatened the survival of such banks, and thus this privately held debt was transferred to public institutions, thereby socializing risk while insuring the sanctity of corporate profit. (I.e., “crisis” does not here refer to those horrors being inflicted on subjugated peoples.)
[Year of initial SAP implementation – nations]
1980 – Jamaica
1981 – Brazil; Mauritius; Uganda
1982 – Mexico; Ecuador; Bangladesh; Central African Republic; Argentina; Tanzania
1983 – Chile; Ghana; Kenya; Malawi; Niger; Somalia
1984 – Congo/Zaire; Mauritania; Senegal
1985 – Bolivia; Botswana; Costa Rica; Gambia; Guinea; Sao Tome
1986 – Madagascar; Nigeria; Philippines; Sierra Leone; Tunisia
1987 – Zambia; Algeria; Guinea-Bissau; Mozambique; Sudan; Yugoslavia
1988 – Equatorial Guinea; Guyana; Hungary; Pakistan; Sri Lanka
1989 – Cameroon; El Salvador; Jordan; Lesotho; Trinidad; Venezuela; Congo (RC); Togo
1990 – Colombia; Czech Republic; Nicaragua; Peru; Rwanda
1991 – Angola; Burkina Faso; Cote d’Ivoire; Egypt; Ethiopia; India; Romania; Zimbabwe
1992 – Latvia; Reunion; Ukraine; Belarus; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Armenia; Kazakhstan; Uzbekistan; Moldova
1993 – Benin; Gabon; Russia; S. Africa; Surinam
1994 – Eritrea; Cambodia; Haiti; Mali
1995 – Seychelles; Swaziland; Tajikistan
1996 – Bosnia-Herzegovina; Comoros; Uruguay
1997 – Bulgaria; Djibouti; Indonesia
1998 – Mongolia; Paraguay; S. Korea; Thailand; Yemen
1999 – Kosovo
5. Rough chronological list of foreign territories “hosting” US military installations. The range of years for each group attempts to indicate when the country in question first began its role as “host” for US military facilities. NB I’m still corroborating these. [under construction]
“Mahan Doctrine” group (1898-1904): Guam; Puerto Rico; Philippines; Cuba; Hawaii, Panama
“Monroe Doctrine-Crisis of Capital” group (1905-1935): Antarctica; Azores; Galapagos; Haiti; Liberia; Nicaragua; Samoa
“Welt Krieg” group (1939-1953): Antigua; Australia; Bahamas; Belgium; Bermuda; British Guiana; Burma; Denmark; France; Germany; Greece; Greenland; Iceland; Indonesia; Iran; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Johnston Atoll; Korea; Marshall Islands; Midway Islands; Morocco; Netherlands; Newfoundland; New Zealand; Okinawa; Portugal; Spain; St. Lucia; Taiwan; Thailand; Trinidad; Turkey; United Kingdom; Vietnam
“Post-Monroe Doctrine-War on Drugs/Depopulation” group (1954-2002): Aruba, Bolivia; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; DRC; Ecuador; El Salvador; Ghana; Guatemala; Honduras; Ivory Coast; Nigeria; Peru; Rwanda; Senegal
“Carter Doctrine” group (1978-1981): Bahrain; Diego Garcia; Egypt; Israel; Kenya; Oman; Somalia
“New World Order-Persian Gulf” group (1990-1991): Kuwait; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; UAE; Yemen
“New World Order-Balkans” group (1991-2001): Albania; Bosnia; Croatia; Hungary; Kosovo; Macedonia
“Afghanistan War/Caspian Basin” group (2000-2002): Afghanistan; Azerbaijan; Georgia; India; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Pakistan; Tajikistan; Uzbekistan
6. Chronological list of US murder toll: [under construction]
The murder toll has been achieved by either direct violence (e.g. the firebombing and nuking of Japan or the firebombing of Dresden) or indirect/proxy “low intensity conflict” (e.g. Rwanda in the 90s or Nicaragua in the 80s). (I have not here accounted for the deaths attributable to SAP.) Some extremely conservative estimates—
Native Americans (1776-2002): 4M
West Africans (1776-1865): 4M
Philippines (1898-1904): 600K
Germany (1945): 200K
Japan (1945): 900K
China (1945-60): 200K
Greece (1947-49): 100K
Korea (1951-53): 2M
Guatemala (1954-2002): 300K
Vietnam (1960-75): 2M
Laos (1965-73): 500K
Cambodia (1969-75): 1M
Indonesia (1965): 500K
Colombia (1966-2002): 500K
Oman (1970): 10K
Bangladesh (1971): 2M
Uganda (1971-1979): 200K
Chile (1973-1990): 20K
East Timor (1975): 200K
Angola (1975-2002): 1.5M
Argentina (1976-1979): 30K
Afghanistan (1978-2002): 1M
El Salvador (1980-95): 100K
Nicaragua (1980-90): 100K
Mozambique (1981-1988): 1M
Turkey (1984-2002): 50K
Rwanda (1990-1996): 1M
Iraq (1991-2002): 1M
Somalia (1991-1994): 300K
Yugoslavia (1991-2002): 300K
Liberia (1992-2002): 150K
Burundi (1993-1999): 200K
Sudan (1998): 100K
Congo (1998-2002): 3M
We should also take note that the United States bears more than superficial responsibility for the Nazi Holocaust: e.g., the turning away of Jewish, Romani, and other refugees; funding the concentration camp system; underwriting the Third Reich’s military; delay in opening a western front; policies of appeasement before the war; siding with the fascists during the Spanish Civil War; turning down Stalin’s offer to attack Germany jointly in 1938; providing theoretical inspiration for lebensraum, final solutions, anti-communism, anti-Semitism, etc; rebuilding Germany after the war with the fascist infrastructure still intact; saving war criminals; general ideological support; and so forth.
7. Alphabetical list of rightwing dictators, reactionary movements, and other reprehensible figures empowered/materially supported by the US: [under construction]
It seems as though the number one criterion for getting a job as the head of a client state is a willingness to butcher leftists. Indeed, the use of unsavory rightists by the United States began neither with the anti-Castro Cuban émigré community, nor with the Afghan mujaheddin alumni, oh Nelly no!
[the dates provided are sloppily done, I concede. At times, they are just the general duration of the given regime (e.g., Selassie). Most others are the duration of US support while the regime lasted (e.g., Hitler, Saddam Hussein, etc.)]
Abacha, Sani (Nigeria: 1993-2000)
Afwerki, Isaias (Eritrea: 1993-2002)
Amin, Idi (Uganda: 1971-1979)
Arévalo, Marco (Guatemala: 1985-1991)
Bakr, Ahmad (Iraq: 1968-1979)
Banzer Suarez, Hugo (Bolivia: 1971-1978)
Bao Dai (Vietnam: 1949-1955)
Barak, Ehud (Israel: 1999-2001)
Barre, Siad (Somalia: 1979-1991)
Batista, Fulgencio (Cuba: 1940-44/1952-1959)
Begin, Menachem (Israel: 1977-1983)
Ben-Gurion, David (Israel: 1948-1953, 1955-1963)
Betancourt Bello, Rumulo (Venezuela: 1959-1964)
Bokassa, Jean-Bedel (Central African Republic: 1966-1976)
Bolkiah, Sir Hassanal (Brunei: 1984-2002)
Botha, P.W. (South Africa: 1978-1989)
Branco, Humberto (Brazil: 1964-1966)
Carmona, Pedro (Venezuela: 2002)
Cedras, Raoul (Haiti: 1991)
Chamoun, Camille (Lebanon: 1952-1958)
Chiang Kai-shek (China: 1928-1949/Taiwan: 1949-1975)
Christiani, Alfredo (El Salvador: 1989-1994)
Chun Doo Hwan (S. Korea: 1980-1988)
Cordova, Roberto (Honduras: 1981-1985)
Diaz, Porfirio (Mexico: 1876-1911)
Diem, Ngo Dinh (S. Vietnam: 1955-1963)
Doe, Samuel (Liberia: 1980-90)
Duvalier, Francois (Haiti: 1957-1971)
Duvalier, Jean Claude (Haiti: 1971-1986)
Eshkol, Levi (Israel: 1963-1969)
Fahd bin’Abdul-‘Aziz (Saudi Arabia: 1969-2002)
Feisal, King (Iraq: 1939-1958)
Franco, Francisco (Spain: 1937-1975)
Fujimori, Alberto (Peru: 1990-2002)
Habre, Hissen (Chad: 1982-1990);
Hassan II (Morocco: 1961-1999)
Hitler, Adolf (Germany: 1933-1939)
Hussein, King (Jordan: 1952-1999)
Hussein, Saddam (Iraq: 1979-1990)
Kabila, Laurent (CDR: 1997-1998)
Karzai, Hamid (Afghanistan: 2001-2002)
Khan, Ayub (Pakistan: 1958-1969)
Koirala, B. (Nepal: 1959-1960)
Lon Nol (Cambodia: 1970-1975)
Marcos, Ferdinand (Philippines: 1965-1986)
Martinez, Maximiliano (El Salvador: 1931-1944)
Meir, Golda (Israel: 1969-1974)
Meles Zenawi (Ethiopia: 1995-2002)
Mobutu Sese Seko (Zaire: 1965-1997)
Moi, Daniel (Kenya: 1978-2002)
Montt, Efrain (Guatemala: 1982-1983)
Mubarak, Hosni (Egypt: 1981-2002)
Museveni, Yoweri (Uganda: 1986-2002)
Musharaf, Pervez (Pakistan: 1999-2002)
Mussolini, Benito (Italy: 1922-1939)
Netanyahu, Benjamin (Israel: 1996-1999)
Noriega, Manuel (Panama: 1983-1989)
Odria, Manuel (Peru: 1948-1956)
Omar, Mohamed (Afghanistan: 1996-2001)
Ozal, Turgut (Turkey: 1989-1993)
Pahlevi , Rezi (Iran: 1953-1979)
Papadopoulos, George (Greece: 1967-1973)
Park Chung Hee (S. Korea: 1960-1979)
Pastrana, Andres (Colombia: 1998-2002)
Peres, Shimon (Israel: 1977, 1984-1986, 1995-1996)
Perez Jimenez, Marcos (Venezuela: 1952-58)
Pinilla, Gustavo (Colombia: 1953-1957)
Pinochet, Augusto (Chile: 1973-1990)
Pol Pot (Cambodia: 1975-1998)
al-Qaddafi, Muammar (Libya: 1969-1971)
Rabin, Yitzhak (Israel: 1974-1977, 1992-1995)
Rabuka, Sitiveni (Fiji: 1987, 1992-1999)
Al Sadat, Anwar (Egypt: 1970-1981)
Selassie, Halie (Ethiopia: 1941-1974)
Salazar, Antonio (Portugal: 1932-1968)
Saud, Abdul Aziz (Saudi Arabia: 1944-1969)
Seaga, Edward (Jamaica: 1980-1989)
Shamir, Yitzhak (Israel: 1983-1984; 1986-1992)
Sharett, Moshe (Israel: 1953-1955)
Sharon, Ariel (Israel: 2001-2002)
Smith, Ian (Rhodesia: 1965-1979)
Somoza Sr., Anastasio (Nicaragua: 1936-1956)
Somoza Jr., Anastasio (Nicaragua: 1963-1979)
Stroessner, Alfredo (Paraguay: 1954-1989)
Suharto, General (Indonesia: 1966-1999)
Syngman Rhee (S. Korea: 1948-1960)
Tolbert, William (Liberia: 1971-1980)
Trujillo, Rafael (Dominican Republic: 1930-1960)
Tubman, William (Liberia: 1944-1971)
Uribe, Alvaro (Colombia: 2002)
Videla, Jorge (Argentina: 1976-1981)
Yeltsin, Boris (Russia: 1991-1999)
Zaim, Hosni (Syria: 1949)
Zia Ul-Haq, Mohammed (Pakistan: 1977-1988)
other nasty nasties:
RPF (contra French client Rwanda);
SPLA contra Islamist Sudan, (a French client);
clients in Cameroon, Congo, Ivory Coast, Togo and Benin, after subverted elections (contra French proxies);
Dalai Lama (Tibet);
bin Laden’s al Qaida;
Nazi war criminals and collaborators knowingly rescued in the years after WW2 by US intelligence for use as covert assets against the USSR:
R. Gehlen; O. Skorzeny; A. Brunner; O. von Bolschwing; W. von Braun; M. Lebed; A. Vlasov; I. Docheff; K. Dragonovich; I. Bogolepov; C. Bolydreff; A. Berzins; H. Herwarth; K. Barbie; I. Demjanjuk; W. Dornberger; V. Hazners; B. Maikovskis; E. Laipenieks; N. Nazarenko; L. Pasztor; R. Ostrowsky; L. Kairys; P. Shandruk; T. Soobzokov; S. Stankievich; and literally thousands of others.
8. List of “international” bodies designed/employed/perverted by the United States: [under construction]
UN/ OECD/ WHO
9. Chronological list of interventions by the United States, with the purpose of opposing (or aiding opposition to) popular resistance movements—whether by means of overt force (OF) or covert operation (CO):
[Date – place (targeted movement): outcome (means)]
1776-1865 – United States (numerous slave rebellions): success (OF)
1782-1787 – United States (Wyoming Valley): success (OF)
1786-1787 – United States (Shay’s Rebellion): success (OF)
1790-1795 – United States (Ohio Valley tribes): success (OF)
1794-1794 – United States (Whiskey Rebellion): success (OF)
1798-1800 – United States (Alien & Sedition trials): success (CO)
1799-1799 – United States (Fries’ Rebellion): success (OF)
1805-1806 – United States (Boston union “conspiracy”): success (CO)
1806-1807 – United States (Burr’s Insurrection): success (OF)
1810-1821 – Spanish Florida (Africans, Natives, etc): success (OF)
1811-1811 – United States (Tecumseh’s Confederacy): success (OF)
1813-1814 – United States (Creeks): success (OF)
1822-1822 – United States (Vesey’s Rebellion): success (CO)
1823-1824 – United States (Arikara): success (OF)
1826-1827 – United States (Philadelphia union “conspiracy”): success (CO)
1827-1827 – United States (Fever River & Winnebago): success (OF)
1831-1831 – United States (Turner’s rebellion): success (OF)
1831-1831 – United States (Sac & Fox): success (OF)
1832-1832 – United States (Black Hawks): success (OF)
1833-1834 – Argentina (rebellion): success (OF)
1835-1835 – United States (Murrel’s Uprising): success (CO)
1835-1836 – Peru (rebellion): success (OF)
1835-1842 – United States (Seminoles): success (OF)
1836-1837 – United States (Sabine, Osage): success (OF)
1836-1844 – Mexico (anti-Texans, Natives, etc): success (OF)
1837-1838 – United States (massive strikes): success (OF)
1838-1839 – United States (Mormons): success (OF)
1842-1842 – United States (Dorr’s Rebellion): success (OF)
1847-1855 – United States (Cayuse): success (OF)
1850-1851 – United States (Mariposa tribes): success (OF)
1851-1859 – United States (Washington tribes): success (OF)
1852-1853 – Argentina (rebellion in Buenos Aires): success (OF
1854-1856 – China (rebellion): success (OF)
1855-1856 – United States (Sioux): success (OF)
1855-1858 – United States (Seminoles): success (OF)
1855-1858 – Nicaragua (Walker’s invasion): success (OF)
1855-1860 – United States (“Bleeding Kansas”): success (OF)
1857-1857 – United States (Cheyenne): success (OF)
1857-1858 – United States (Mormons): success (OF)
1858-1858 – Uruguay (rebellion in Montevideo): success (OF)
1858-1859 – United States (Comanche): success (OF)
1859-1859 – United States (Brownists at Harper’s Ferry): success (OF)
1860-1860 – Angola (rebellion in Kissembo): success (OF)
1860-1861 – Colombia (rebellion): success (OF)
1861-1865 – United States (confederate rebellion): success (OF)
1861-1865 – United States (Navajo): success (OF)
1861-1886 – United States (Apache): success (OF)
1862-1864 – United States (Sioux): success (OF)
1863-1863 – United States (draft riots): success (OF)
1863-1864 – United States (massive strikes): success (OF)
1864-1864 – United States (Sand Hill Massacre): success (OF)
1865-1865 – Panama (rebellion): success (OF)
1865-1867 – United States (Sioux): success (OF)
1867-1867 – Formosa (rebellion): success (OF)
1867-1875 – United States (Comanche): success (OF)
1868-1868 – Japan (rebellion): success (OF)]
1868-1868 – United States (Washita/South Plains tribes): success (OF)
1868-1868 – Uruguay (rebellion): success (OF)
1871-1871 – Korea (rebellion): success (OF)
1872-1873 – United States (Modocs): success (OF)
1874-1875 – United States (Red River War): success (OF)
1874-1874 – United States (Kiowa): success (OF)
1876-1877 – United States (Sioux/Cheyenne): success (OF)
1877-1877 – United States (St Louis general strike, others): success (OF)
1877-1877 – United States (Nez Perce): success (OF)
1878-1878 – United States (Idaho tribes): success (OF)
1878-1879 – United States (Cheyenne): success (OF)
1879-1880 – United States (Ute): success (OF)
1885-1885 – United States (New York textile strikes): failure (OF)
1886-1886 – United States (massive strikes, Haymarket): success (OF)
1888-1888 – Korea (rebellion): success (OF)
1888-1893 – Hawaii (rebellion contra Dole): success (OF)
1888-1889 – Samoa (rebellion): success (OF)
1890-1891 – United States (Pine Ridge, Wounded Knee): success (OF)
1891-1891 – Haiti (Navassa uprising): success (OF)
1891-1892 – Chile (rebellion): success (OF)
1892-1892 – United States (Idaho miners): success (OF)
1893-1894 – United States (massive strikes): success (OF)
1894-1894 – Nicaragua (Bluefields unrest): success (OF)
1894-1894 – United States (Chicago rail/Pullman strikes): success (OF)
1894-1895 – Brazil (rebellion): success (OF)
1894-1896 – Korea (post Sino-Japanese war rebellion): success (OF)
1896-1899 – Nicaragua (rebellions): success (OF)
1898-1900 – United States (Chippewa at Leech Lake): success (OF)
1898-1902 – Philippines (nationalist resistance): success (OF)
1899-1899 – Samoa (Mataafa): success (OF)
1899-1901 – United States (Idaho miners): success (OF)
1900-1941 – China (Boxers, communists, etc): success (OF)
1901-1901 – United States (Creek uprising): success (OF)
1901-1901 – United States (Steel strikes): failure (OF)
1901-1902 – Colombia (rebellions): success (OF)
1901-1913 – Philippines (Moslem Moro rebellion): success (OF)
1903-1903 – Honduras (rebellion): success (OF)
1903-1904 – Dominican Republic (rebellion): success (OF)
1904-1909 – United States (Kentucky tobacco farmers): success (OF)
1906-1909 – Cuba (rebellion): success (OF)
1907-1911 – Honduras (leftists, Bonilla): success (OF)
1909-1911 – United States (NY/Triangle textile strikes): failure (OF)
1911-1912 – China (rebellions): success (OF)
1912-1925 – Nicaragua (leftists): success (OF)
1913-1919 – Mexico (various rebellions, Villa): failure (OF)
1914-1914 – United States (Ludlow Massacre): success (OF)
1914-1924 – Dominican Republic (various factions): success (OF)
1915-1934 – Haiti (Sam, etc): success (OF)
1916-1917 – United States (Arizona miners strike): success (OF)
1917-1918 – United States (IWW): success (CO)
1917-1919 – United States (Espionage Act trials): success (CO)
1917-1922 – Cuba (rebellions): success (OF)
1918-1920 – Panama (strikes, election protests, etc): success (OF)
1919-1919 – Honduras (rebellion): success (OF)
1919-1920 – United States (Palmer Raids): success (CO)
1919-1920 – Costa Rica (Tinoco, etc): success (CO)
1919-1920 – United States (Great Steel Strike, others): success (OF)
1920-1921 – United States (West Virginian miners): success (OF)
1920-1928 – United States (prison rebellions): success (OF)
1920-1920 – Guatemala (Unionists): success (OF)
1922-1922 – Turkey (Nationalists): success (OF)
1922-1923 – United States (massive strikes): success (OF)
1924-1925 – Honduras (rebellions): success (OF)
1925-1925 – Panama (general strike): success (OF)
1926-1933 – Nicaragua (Sandino, others): success (OF)
1931-1932 – El Salvador (Marti): success (OF)
1932-1932 – United States (DC Bonus Strikers): success (OF)
1933-1933 – Cuba (rebellion): success (OF)
1935-1935 – Philippines (Sakdal Uprising): success (OF)
1938-1957 – United States (leftists: HUAC, McCarthyism): success (CO)
1943-1946 – United States (unprecedented strikes): success (OF)
1944-1951 – Greece (EAM/ELAS/KKE): success (CO)
1945-1949 – China (maoism): failure (OF)
1945-1954 – Vietnam (Viet Minh): failure (CO)
1946-1947 – S. Korea (mass resistance to US military rule): success (OF)
1947-1950 – Turkey (TKP): success (CO)
1948-1948 – S. Korea (democratic resistance): success (OF)
1948-1954 – Philippines (Huks): success (CO)
1950-1951 – United States (Puerto Rican independence): success (OF)
1950-1953 – United States (many prison rebellions): success (OF)
1952-1975 – Japan (general anti-US protests): success (OF)
1952-1957 – Japan (protestors in Okinawa): success (OF)
1953-1963 – Syria (ASRP/Baathists): failure (CO)
1954-1962 – Algeria (FLN): failure (CO)
1956-1971 – United States (Cointelpro-CPUSA): success (CO)
1956-1975 – South Vietnam (NLF): failure (OF)
1957-1959 – Lebanon (leftists): success (OF)
1957-1958 – Jordan (leftists/anti-monarchists): success (OF)
1959-1960 – Haiti (rebels contra Duvalier): success (OF)
1960-1971 – United States (Cointelpro-Puertorriquenos): success (CO)
1960-1966 – Peru (leftist rebels/PCP): success (CO)
1960-1963 – Venezuela (FALN; leftist): success (CO)
1962-1969 – United States (Cointelpro-SWP): success (CO)
1963-1965 – El Salvador (various rebels): success (CO)
1964-1964 – Panama (Canal activists): success (OF)
1965-1968 – United States (mass urban race riots): failure (OF)
1965-1966 – Dominican Republic (Bosch supporters): success (OF)
1965-1966 – Indonesia (PKI): success (CO)
1965-2000 – East Timor (independence movement): failure (CO)
1966-1973 – United States (massive antiwar protest): failure (OF)
1966-2002 – Colombia (FARC/ELN): success (CO)
1966-1988 – Namibia (SWAPO): failure (CO)
1966-1967 – Guatemala (leftists): success (CO)
1967-1971 – United States (Cointelpro-SCLC, BPP, CORE, etc): failure (CO)
1967-1967 – United States (Detroit black workers): success (OF)
1967-1971 – Uruguay (Tupamaros): success (CO)
1967-1968 – United States (San Quentin prison rebellions): success (OF)
1967-1969 – Japan (protestors in Okinawa): success (OF)
1968-1969 – United States (MLK assassination riots): success (OF)
1968-1971 – United States (Cointelpro-SDS): success (CO)
1969-1970 – United States (IAT at Alcatraz): success (OF)
1969-1970 – Oman (Dhufar Rebellion): success (CO)
1969-2002 – Philippines (maoism): success (CO)
1970-1970 – United States (several prison rebellions): success (OF)
1970-1970 – United States (campus uprisings: KSU, etc): success (OF)
1970-1970 – Jordan (Palestinian resistance): success (CO)
1970-1972 – Bangladesh (independence movement): failure (CO)
1970-1972 – Trinidad (rebellions): success (OF)
1971-1971 – United States (post-Jackson murder prison riots): success (OF)
1972-1973 – Nicaragua (Sandinistas): success (OF)
1973-1973 – United States (Lakota at Wounded Knee): success (OF)
1973-1976 – United States (Cointelpro-AIM): success (CO)
1974-2002 – Israel (PLO): success (CO)
1974-2002 – Turkey (PKK): success (CO)
1977-1978 – United States (coal miners): failure (OF)
1980-2002 – Peru (MRTA/Shining Path): success (CO)
1981-1992 – El Salvador (FMLN, etc): success (CO)
1981-1990 – Honduras (PCH, FPR, etc): success (CO)
1981-1981 – United States (air controllers strike): success (OF)
1982-1983 – Morocco (MOL): success (CO)
1982-1984 – Lebanon (leftist & Moslem resistance): failure (OF)
1986-1990 – Bolivia (peasants): success (OF)
1989-1989 – St. Croix (Black rebellion): success (OF)
1992-1992 – United States (LA uprising): success (OF)
1994-2002 – Mexico (EZLN/Zapatistas): success (CO)
1995-1998 – Japan (protestors in Okinawa): success (OF)
1996-2002 – Nepal (CPN): success (CO)
10. US as “isolationist” pre-1941?
hahahahaha! DoS-confessed conflicts & interventions up to WW2 (NB other unconfessed exist—tracking them is the tricky part).
Contra major European powers—
France: 1798-1800, 1806-10
Germany: 1917-18, 1941-45
Great Britain: 1775-1783, 1812-1815
Spain [and colonies]: 1806-10, 1812, 1813, 1814, 1816-18, 1898
Contra minor powers, colonies, marginal states, non-European major powers—
“Africa” [west coast]: 1820-23, 1843 [allegedly contra “slave trade”]
Amelia Is.: 1812, 1817
Algeria/Algiers: 1815 [the 2nd Barbary War]
Argentina: 1833, 1852-3, 1890
“Bering Sea”: 1891 [contra alleged “seal poaching” LOL]
“Caribbean”: 1814-25 [contra alleged “piracy”]
China: 1843, 1854-6, 1859, 1866, 1894-5, 1898-9, 1900, 1911, 1912-41
Colombia: 1868, 1873, 1895, 1902
Costa Rica: 1921
Cuba: 1822-25, 1906-9, 1912, 1917-22, 1933
Dominican Republic: 1799, 1903-4, 1914
Fiji: 1840, 1855, 1858 [the most curious in the bunch, IMHO]
Greenland: 1941 [“defense” agreement]
Haiti: 1888, 1891, 1914, 1915-34
Hawaii: 1870, 1874, 1893
Honduras: 1903, 1907, 1911, 1912, 1919, 1924-5
Iceland: 1941 [“defense” agreement]
Japan: 1853-4, 1863, 1868, 1941-45
Johanna Is.: 1851
Kingsmills Is.: 1841
Korea: 1871, 1888, 1889, 1894-6, 1904-5
Libya/Tripoli: 1801-1805, 1815 [the 1st and 3rd Barbary Wars]
Marquesa Is.: 1813-4
Mexico: 1806, 1836, 1842, 1844, 1846-8, 1859, 1866, 1870, 1873, 1876, 1913-9
Nicaragua: 1853, 1854, 1857, 1869, 1894, 1896, 1898-9, 1910, 1912-25, 1926-33
Panama: [Colo] 1856, 1860, 1865, 1885, 1901, [indep] 1903-14, 1918-21, 1925
Puerto Rico: 1824, 1899
Samoa: 1841, 1888-9, 1899
Sumatra: 1832, 1838-9
Turkey: 1851, 1858-9, 1912, 1917-8, 1919, 1922
Uruguay: 1855, 1858, 1868
Scanning the official public acknowledgment list here, we clearly see that the US had extreme paranoia about China, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama: Open Doors, “uncooperative” neighbors, and two potential canal zones. Also, check the rationale in the official Defense Dept. record for each of the above conflict dates. Many, many times, we have the “to protect US interests [or “nationals”] during a crisis” as the proposed justification. Caveat lector.
11. Noteworthy Covert Operations conducted by the United States.
We should keep in mind that the dates given are the confessed dates of operation. In no way does this account for programs that continued to run after they were officially terminated, nor does it reckon with the same practices under different names—or no names at all. It should go without saying that this isn’t a complete listing.
Overcast (1945-46): OSS rescuing Nazi military scientists for US use
Crowcass: 1945-48): locating thousands of Nazis for later use
Paperclip (1946-1954): continuation and expansion of Overcast
Mockingbird (1947-2002): CIA control of mass media
Bloodstone (1948-50): infiltrating fascists into the USSR
Gladio (1949-90): terrorist actions to discredit the left; assassination, etc.
Ajax (1950-1953): supporting the Shah of Iran and overthrowing Mossadegh
MK-Ultra (1953-1963): CIA experiments with LSD, etc on non-volunteers
Cointelpro (1956-71): FBI destabilization of CP, AIM, SDS, civil rights, etc.
Celeste (1960-61): CIA assassination of UN secretary-general Dag Hammarskjold
Mongoose (1961-63): killing Castro and destabilizing Cuba via CIA agitprop, etc
Northwoods (1962-2002): DoD prepares faked “terror attacks” qua casus belli
SHAD (1962-1973): DoD performs biochemical weaponry tests on US citizens
Merrimac (1967-68): CIA surveillance of DC
Phoenix (1967-1971): mass agitprop and assassination program in Vietnam
Resistance (1967-68): CIA spying on US student movements
Chaos (1968-1974): CIA domestic espionage on students, activists, etc
Garden Plot (1968-2002): DoD plans for mass repression/concentration camps
Tailwind (1970): killing US defectors in Vietnam with sarin gas
Grillflame (1971-1991): CIA “ESP troopers” i.e. over-horizon radar
Echelon (1972-2002): NSA electronic surveillance of all communication
Watch Tower (1974-1976): CIA builds an “air corridor” for narcotics traffic in Colombia
Condor (1975-1977): Security arrangement in S. America to kill leftists
George Orwell (1978-1990): CIA surveillance of US politicians, etc, to protect narcotics traffic
Cyclone (1979-2002): funding violent Islamic fundamentalist groups
Promis (1981-2002): CIA, etc surveillance of financial transactions
JCET (1991-2002): “foreign internal defense” training programs
Roots (1993-1999): CIA sows fascistic propaganda in Yugoslavia
Storm (1995): ethnic cleansing of Serbs from Krajina
Carnivore (1999-2002): FBI surveillance of www posts, listservs, etc
Magic Lantern (2001-2002): FBI surveillance of PC keystrokes.
Tips (2002-): DoJ civilian informants and denunciations
12. Prominent Front Organizations used to advance US imperialist interests:
Adolph Coors Foundation: rightist propaganda slush-fund
AFL-CIO: CIA controlled labor organization
African American Institute: CIA front group
American Council for International Commission of Jurists: CIA front
American Enterprise Foundation: rightist think-tank
American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees: CIA front
American Foreign Policy Council: rightist think-tank
American Friends of the Middle East: CIA front group
American Newspaper Guild: CIA front group
American Society of African Culture: CIA front group
Brookings Institution: rightist think-tank
CANF: anti-Castro lobbyist
Cato Institute: rightist think-tank
Carnegie Endowment: rightist think-tank
Center for Security Policy: rightist think-tank
Center for Strategic and International Studies: rightist think-tank
Competitive Enterprise Institute: rightist think-tank
Ethics and Public Policy Center: rightist think-tank
Ford Foundation: CIA front group
Freedom Forum: rightist think-tank
Fund for International Social and Economic Education: CIA front group
Heritage Foundation: rightist think-tank
Hoover Institution: rightist think-tank
Hudson Institute: rightist think-tank
Institute for Historical Review: neo-fascist lobbyist; Holocaust denier
Institute for International Economics: rightist think-tank
Institute for International Labor Research: CIA front group
International Development Foundation: CIA front group
International Institute for Strategic Studies: rightist think-tank
John Birch Society: virulent anti-communist publicist
John M. Olin Foundation: rightist propaganda slush-fund
Koch Family Foundations: rightist propaganda slush-fund
Liberty Lobby: neo-fascist agitprop
Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation: rightist propaganda slush-fund
Manhattan Institute: rightist think-tank
National Education Association: CIA front group
National Endowment for Democracy: CIA front group
National Student Association: CIA front group
Progress and Freedom Foundation: rightist think-tank
Progressive Policy Institute: rightist think-tank
RAND Corporation: rightist think-tank
Reason Foundation: rightist think-tank
Scaife Family Foundations: rightist propaganda slush-fund
Smith Richardson Foundation: rightist propaganda slush-fund
Soros Foundation: CIA front group
USAID: official humanitarian front used to control food politics
USIA: primary disseminator of official “white propaganda”
Voice of America: CIA-controlled radio
13. “Low intensity wars” conducted by the United States and its proxies
(“medium intensity warfare” = direct and usually acknowledged involvement of US military apparatus; “high intensity warfare” = Dr. Strangelove stuff: “nuclear combat toe-to-toe with the Russkies,” &c).
The primary goal of low intensity conflict is to use proxies, intelligence, and special forces to destabilize a region and its official government. The purpose of destabilization is to achieve 1) access to resources amidst the chaos, 2) delegitimation of an “enemy” political/economic system, 3) influence over specific local groups, and 4) depopulation of regions inhabited by “untermenschen.”
All leftists should learn about low intensity warfare; it is by far and away one of the most disgusting and useful tools in the imperialist repertoire. Don’t let the words “low intensity” trick you: rivers are dammed with corpses and the fields are sown with the blood of the targeted nation.
1950s: Poland; Ukraine; Russia, China; Thailand; Burma
1960s: Congo; Vietnam; Laos; Cambodia; Thailand; Burma
1970s: Congo; Vietnam; Laos; Cambodia
1980s: Congo; Cambodia; Nicaragua; Afghanistan; Mozambique; Angola; Ethiopia; Yemen; Western Sahara
1990s: Congo; Cambodia; Afghanistan; Yugoslavia; Nigeria; Sierra Leone; Guinea-Bissau; Colombia; Liberia; Sudan; Central African Republic; Equatorial Guinea
14. Proxy Wars fought by the United States, which typically involves the use of clients, dupes, mercenaries, unofficial “volunteers,” and official, though disavowable, special forces. [under construction]
contra Soviet Union: stock-in-trade Cold War superpower jousting
contra France: after the Soviet Union ended all activities in Africa, the US began its bid to force French proxies out of North Africa.
contra Germany: during the 1990s, Germany and the US used multiple proxies to fight over control of the Balkans, with its precious “Corridor 8,” thereby ruining the entire region.
contra China: from Cold War crimes to New World Order harassment, the US has used many proxies against the Chinese: Thai, Tibetan, Burmese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Cambodian, Islamic, Taiwanese.
15. Foreign policy doctrines more or less practiced by the United States.
Monroe Doctrine – western hemisphere = US property; non-whites = untermenschen
McKinley Doctrine – Open Door Policy i.e., China, Pacific = potentially, possibly, most likely US property; non-whites = untermenschen
Roosevelt Corollary – western hemisphere = US property, and we mean it this time! non-whites = untermenschen
Taft Doctrine – Dollar Diplomacy i.e., western hemisphere = US property, and we mean economically, politically, and all other ways; the Middle East = potentially, possibly, most likely, US property
Wilson Doctrine – 14 Points internationalism (i.e., great powers should respect each other; to hell with the rest); western hemisphere = US property, and we really mean it this time! non-whites = untermenschen
Roosevelt Doctrine – “Good Neighbor Policy!” i.e., western hemisphere = US property, and we really really really fucking mean it.
Truman Doctrine – aid to fascists in Greece, Turkey, the Philippines, Korea, Vietnam, western Europe, Eastern Europe, North Africa, etc. i.e., what Kennan called “Containment.”
Eisenhower Doctrine – the Middle East = US property; non-whites = untermenschen; massive retaliation
Nixon Doctrine – enter neocolonialism: overthrowing governments, installing clients, using local elites to manage foreign populations for US advantage i.e., Asia, Africa, western hemisphere = US property, but we’re gonna try to be sneaky about it. Overall, see above.
Carter Doctrine – the Middle East = US property, and we aren’t kidding; trilateralism
Reagan Doctrine – “Rollback”; mutually assured destruction; low intensity warfare; support for rightwing Islamist groups, narcotics smuggling, etc.
Bush I Doctrine – New World Order; “What we say, goes.”
Clinton Doctrine – New World Order; “multilaterally if we can, unilaterally when we must.”
Bush II Doctrine – New World Order; “unilaterally when we can, multilaterally if we must.”
16. Noteworthy propaganda campaigns, hoaxes, and other lies qua casus belli utilized by the United States:
It is well known that German Fascists transformed their buffoonish leader, Hitler, from a national joke into der Fuhrer die Reich by means of a) securing moneys from large industrialists and financiers (they liked his extremely rightwing ideas on race, labor, religion, nationalism, capitalism, imperialism, etc) and b) by using multiple propaganda hoaxes in order to sway domestic opinion.
The Reichstag fire in 1933 allowed for Hitler to be proclaimed leader of the state as well as for the Night of the Long Knives the following year (violence against leftists) and all of the anti-jewish bullshit that came soon after. As we all know, the Reichstag was burned by fascist thugs and blamed on communists; they even got a disabled Dutch guy to “admit” to both arson and communism—smoking gun! woohoo!
In 1938, the Nazis claimed that they needed to perform a “humanitarian intervention” in the Sudetenland (in the modern Czech Republic) in order to stop “ethnic violence.” Of course, it was Nazi thugs carrying out the “ethnic violence” in the first place, but never mind that small detail.
In 1939, the fascists contrived Operation Canned Goods—a faked attack on a German border patrol, which was allegedly a surprise massacre, carried out by Polish military personnel. Evil Slavic Untermenschen Evildoer Terrorists! Too bad, however, that we now know those corpses in German uniform shown on Nazi TV to be dead Poles, kidnapped and murdered; the German public, though, went insane with jingoism, calling for invasions and genocide.
As we shall see, this is a technique learned by the Nazis from the masters of such things in the US (Hitler credited the development of the “Final Solution” to his study of US treatment of Native Americans), and something that was then perfected by the US after it recovered and reconciled with its mad dog Nazi assets during the Cold War.
The overall pattern is using irrelevant, misinterpreted, or completely fabricated events in order to convince all of the clarences (who had nothing to gain from militarism, but who were susceptible to jingoism, racism, ethnocentrism) that…war is a great fucking idea! NB that many of these propaganda hoaxes seem to be more effective now than they were when first produced. Also NB, these are the times that the state was forced, for whatever reasons, to consult with the public—either Congress or the people. Most US crimes are committed without recourse to either, or with only a general, vague acknowledgement: “Oh, that CIA is just protecting Freedom from Evil! We can’t tell you what they’re doing specifically, because that would compromise them to the Forces of Darkness!”
1775 – Britain: so it begins, and the story runs that Evildoer British imperialists took away Our Liberty, &c.; produced Evil Boston Massacres, Stamp Acts, Massachusetts Uprisings; and tried to import tea. While the British were certainly imperialistic, and tea is the mark of the ruling class in colonial times, we should take heed that the first offensive of the American War for Independence was a colonial invasion of Quebec. Huh? You mean, before they even signed the Declaration, the proto-United States was invading other countries? You bet. What’s at stake here is the Proclamation Line and the Quebec Act, both of which prevented the fledgling colonies from expanding. And be sure to recall that during the next US war, a conquest of Canada would again be attempted.
1812 – Britain: ah…tales of “naval impressments.” Too bad that this narrative, of war caused by US sailors being conscripted, like slaves, into the British privateering fleet, is a lie; too bad that the landowners all across the infant US wanted the British, French, Spanish, and natives off the continent so they could expand their holdings, import more slaves, and thereby make more money; too bad that plans for such expansion existed way before the declaration of hostilities. The keys here are Florida, the Caribbean, and the western frontier.
1846 – Mexico: the US is forced to retaliate against the Mexicans, since Mexican troops ruthlessly attacked US regiments, who just happened to be occupying slave-owning Texas. Why would the Evildoers in Mexico do that? Not, I hope, because Texas was part of Mexico? Not, I fear, because Mexicans were anti-slavery (abolished since 1829)? Not, I believe, because the US had aggressively assaulted Mexico multiple times already, including the original secessionist agitation in Texas? No, none of that matters; they’re just Evil.
1898 – Spain: the “Remember the Maine!” incident as well as Hearst newspapers proclaiming that Cuba needed a “humanitarian intervention”—both obvious lies—help sway people in the US to genocidal furor. Enter Empire, the subjugation of the people of Guam, Puerto Rico, and Cuba, and the Philippine genocide.
1917 – Central Powers: the Lusitania incident and the Zimmerman Telegram fire up US war fervor; too bad the Wilson administration provoked the Germans by aiding the British under a flag of “neutrality,” generated tons of anti-German racialist BS, and managed to invade every country in the Caribbean, including Mexico several times. Also, we needn’t forget that the Wilsonian declaration of War was timed perfectly with Lenin’s “April Theses.” All in the name of “protecting democracy,” from Evildoers, no doubt! An honest student of history will note that it’s more like “protecting certain segments of Kapital from others, whilst destroying genuine democratic resistance.”
1918 – USSR: “Communists eat babies!” “Bolsheviks seek to conquer world!’ “International Jewry grabs power in Russia!” “Reds to start war in India next!” “Socialism and incest: partners in Sin!” So ran the newspapers, every day, in every city, after Czarist absolutism was broken by popular resistance, no thanks to the US. Wilson’s administration used such imbecilic pretenses in a failed attempt to “strangle bolshevism in its cradle,” as one imperialist from a different genocidal nation put it. Of course, the real motives behind western intervention weren’t mentioned: Capital Capital Capital Capital.
1941 – Axis Powers: the Pearl Harbor attack was known in advance, no matter how “sudden” or how much “infamy” Roosevelt would later claim for it. NB FDR’s well-planned provocation strategy to ensure that Japan would attack the US, thus allowing the US to dictate terms to the rest of the world, which would be destroyed by war’s end. NB that the overrated Operation Overlord was delayed just long enough for the Soviet Union to be shattered by Kapital’s mad dog Hitler, but just timely enough to prevent the Soviets from taking out all of the fascists in Europe, from the Volga to Gibraltar.
1945 – Japan: event—nukes; propaganda lie—“saving Japanese and American lives”; bitter truth—self-serving genocide and terrorism to intimidate Stalin. Only assholes can believe the US story here.
1950 – DPRK: despite claims that “the Totalitarian North ruthlessly invaded the Free South,” it looks as though a communist North reacted to a long series of provocations carried out by a fascistic South, which included border skirmishes, coordinated raids, and artillery battery. But who cares? America to the rescue! Of fascism!
1952 – East Germany: despite Soviet attempts to get out of Berlin, requiring only assurances from the US that Germany would be a) democratic, b) demilitarized, c) united, and d) neutral, the US insisted on the precarious, ignorant status quo, obviously preferring it to the just Soviet proposal. Up, then, went the Berlin Wall in 1961, which was called an act of tyranny by moronic US commentators, but was intended by the Soviet Union to keep fascists, CIA operatives, saboteurs, assassins, and other agents of Kapital away. This event is largely responsible for much escalation of the Cold War during 50s, which would predictably and wrongly be blamed on the USSR.
1953 – Iran: Commies are gonna get us! Or so it was said by flag-waving retards. The unfortunate truth: a democratic regime thought it was allowed to use its own resources for its own benefit. The US disagreed with Mossadegh.
1954 – Guatemala: Commies are gonna get us! Or so it was said by flag-waving retards. The unfortunate truth: a democratic regime thought it was allowed to use its own resources for its own benefit. The US disagreed with Arbenz.
1964 – Vietnam: the USS Maddox got hit by some lightning, but LBJ thought it’d be a good idea to bow before the banking cartels, the Seven Sisters, the Pentagon, and crusty McCarthyoids, thereby inventing the notion that the (repeat the old script) Red North ruthlessly invaded the Free South—or, at least they ruthlessly attacked an innocent US naval vessel in international waters. Turns out that there was no attack, that the ship was in Hanoi’s waters, and was not-at-all-innocently deploying special forces and other anti-communist swine into the North for the normal roster of Kapitalist Karnage.
1973 – Chile: Commies are gonna get us! Or so it was said by flag-waving retards. The unfortunate truth: a democratic regime thought it was allowed to use its own resources for its own benefit. The US disagreed with Allende.
1981 – Nicaragua: Commies are gonna get us! Or so it was said by flag-waving retards. The unfortunate truth: a democratic regime thought it was allowed to use its own resources for its own benefit. The US disagreed with Ortega.
1983 – Grenada: Commies are gonna get us! Or so it was said by flag-waving retards. The unfortunate truth: a democratic regime thought it was allowed to use its own resources for its own benefit. The US disagreed with Bishop.
1986 – Libya: Evil Terrorist Nation! Quit doing Terrorist things! We will bomb you! Turns out that the Libyans weren’t responsible, after all, for the acts of “terror” of which they’d been accused. Hmm…a high publicity bombing mission right in the middle of the Iran-Contra Affair? What a coincidence! And at a time when Gorbachev was making peaceful overtures and the US was in danger of having no enemies? Amazingly coincidental!
1989 – Panama: They said that Noriega was an Evildoer Drugdealer! You must go Evil Doper! USA All The Way! Humanitarian Intervention! We should mention that Noriega was attempting to institute some democratic reforms and social services, had been a CIA asset, and largely oversaw US drug smuggling—and could document his and US involvement in the Iran-Contra Affair. But why trouble anyone with the facts? Especially the fact that the true meaning of the words “Operation Just Cause” is that US Delta Force teams secretly attacked US Army units so that the US could claim “Panamanian terrorists are shooting us!”
1991 – Kuwait: the famous “dead babies” hoax, which was revealed to be a lie. Other tidbits: Kuwait had provoked Iraq in numerous ways; Iraq got approval from its imperial master, the US, before invading; Bush had personal investments in the region; and US strategy had long called for a way to control the Gulf States directly. With the USSR gone and the Kuwait-Iraq border dispute, the US now had both pretext and opportunity.
1992 – Bosnia: never mind all of the dead Serbs. Instead, check out this photo! The Evil Serb Evildoers have Evilly put some guy in a concentration camp at Trnopolje! Look at the barbed wire! Look at how starved he is! Oh…wait a minute…looks like that the barbed wire is around someone’s shed, that the photographer is in the shed, that the starving guy is a refugee on the outside of the barbed fence, that the headline “Belsen 92” is a lie, that there were no concentration camps, and that the entire series of US operations in the early 1990s were resurrected Nazi policies on Yugoslavia, which still maintained some socialistic economic policies. Well, I’ll be damned: another “humanitarian intervention” for Kapitalism.
1993 – Somalia: Yet another “Humanitarian intervention!” Thing is, the famine was nearly over, the US wasn’t anywhere near where it had been, the Somalis already hated the US for thrusting Barre on them, and the US was only there now for 1) oil prospecting, 2) uranium mining, 3) military basing, 4) public relations, and 5) a “paid advertisement” for the Pentagon, in Chairman of the Joint Chiefs Colin Powell’s cynical phrase..
1998 – Sudan: Evil terrorists are making VX nerve gas in that big factory! Tomahawk it! Turns out, though, that the plant manufactured antibiotics for half the country. Given that the Sudan was in the midst of a disease crisis, the destruction of their medical infrastructure only served to exacerbate the problem. How many died as a result? Who knows—the US, as is typical, doesn’t care to investigate, apologize, or acknowledge.
1999 – Kosovo: “Humanitarian intervention!” Now for something completely different. Racak, Srebrenica, Izbica, Trepca—all more complicated than they seem, as according to numerous international organizations, the FBI, and so on. Ethnic cleansing? Only if we are talking about the cleansing of Serbs by NATO. And the banner hoax here: the “Serbian MIG,” allegedly attacking civilians, is revealed as a fraud in state-press photos, which obviously display English writing on the alleged fuselage.
2001 – Afghanistan: Evil Terrorists got us! We will get them back! Of course, the true story is much more complicated, involving US complicity, deception, and strategic planning at all levels, as noted in the recent historical record (cf. “the complete 9/11 timeline”).
2002 – Iraq?: Evil! Smite Evil! Get oil! Did I say oil? I meant that Evildoer tried to kill my daddy! One excellent hoax, besides the manufactured general “threat” rhetoric, is the alleged 15 kg of “weapons-grade uranium” recovered in Turkey in mid 2002, allegedly bound for Iraq from “Eastern Europe.” Too bad that this “weapons-grade uranium” has “Made in West Germany” written on it—in English.
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US interventions, geostrategy, and other crimes:
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