1list of interventions
for regime change
2list of air warfare campaigns
3list of client states
4list of states held by debt-leverage imperialism
5list of foreign base hosts
6list of murder toll
7list of unsavory rightists supported
8list of perverted international bodies
9list of interventions for opposing liberation
10list of interventions pre-1941
11list of covert operations
12list of front organizations
13list of low intensity conflicts
14list of proxy wars
15list of foreign policy doctrines
16list of propaganda campaigns
1. Chronological list of interventions, with the purpose of effecting regime change, attempted or materially supported by the United Stateswhether primarily by means of overt force (OF), covert operation (CO), or subverted election (SE):
a) OF and SE imply, necessarily, prior and continuing CO.
b) OF = directly applied state terrorism by the United States repressive apparatus i.e. the Departments of War/Defense, Energy, Treasury, and State. N.B. the formation of the National Security Council (1947) and the Office of Homeland Security (2002).
c) CO = reconnaissance, classical coups detat, legal harassment, disinformation (through media, legal, NGO, student, labor, and other front groups), bribery, sabotage, assassination, proxy warfare, running ratlines for fascist émigré groups, and assorted other clandestine activities.
d) SE = a particular species of CO, comparatively non-violent, high plausible deniability, usually involves dumping tons of cash and campaign technologies into the hands of rightist groups during elections, sowing discord in leftist parties, buying up media space in order to destabilize electorates, tampering directly with ballot results, and hiring jackboots to actively threaten and brutalize voters in the last resort. NB many subverted elections are preceded by lengthy terror campaigns (e.g. Nicaragua, El Salvador, Yugoslavia, etc).
It should go without saying that the following entries are simplified; only the major payoff year is listed, where applicable. Most attempted overthrows were preceded by lengthy preparationsvast right wing conspiracies, indeed. NB that this list remains under construction; new data will be added in the next installment.
[Date place (head of targeted state/candidate in subverted election; political affiliation): outcome (means)]
The * indicates that Im not clever enough to have found the absent data yet. Apologies.
Neutralist refers to a given regimes desire to avoid taking sides with either power bloc in the cold war. It should be readily apparent that such is an unforgivable sin against the foreign policy establishment in the United States.
Nationalist refers to a given regimes desire to nationalize foreign-owned means of production within its national boundaries. It should be readily apparent that such is an unforgivable sin against the foreign policy establishment in the United States.
1893 Hawaii (Liliuokalani; monarchist): success (OF)
1912 China (Piyu; monarchist): success (OF)
1918 Panama (Arias; center-right): success (SE)
1919 Hungary (Kun; communist): success (CO)
1920 USSR (Lenin; communist): failure (OF)
1924 Honduras (Carias; nationalist): success (SE)
1934 United States (Roosevelt; liberal): failure (CO)
1945 Japan (Higashikuni; rightist): success (OF)
1946 Thailand (Pridi; conservative): success (CO)
1946 Argentina (Peron; military/centrist): failure (SE)
1947 France (*; communist): success (SE)
1947 Philippines (*; center-left): success (SE)
1947 Romania (Gheorghiu-Dej; stalinist): failure (CO)
1948 Italy (*, communist): success (SE)
1948 Colombia (Gaitan; populist/leftist): success (SE)
1948 Peru (Bustamante; left/centrist): success (CO)
1949 Syria (Kuwatli; neutralist/Pan-Arabist): success (CO)
1949 China (Mao; communist): failure (CO)
1950 Albania (Hoxha; communist): failure (CO)
1951 Bolivia (Paz; center/neutralist): success (CO)
1951 DPRK (Kim; stalinist): failure (OF)
1951 Poland (Cyrankiewicz; stalinist): failure (CO)
1951 Thailand (Phibun; conservative): success (CO)
1952 Egypt (Farouk; monarchist): success (CO)
1952 Cuba (Prio; reform/populist): success (CO)
1952 Lebanon (*; left/populist): success: (SE)
1953 British Guyana (*; left/populist): success (CO)
1953 Iran (Mossadegh; liberal nationalist): success (CO)
1953 Costa Rica (Figueres; reform liberal): failure (CO)
1953 Philippines (*; center-left): success (SE)
1954 Guatemala (Arbenz; liberal nationalist): success (OF)
1955 Costa Rica (Figueres; reform liberal): failure (CO)
1955 India (Nehru; neutralist/socialist): failure (CO)
1955 Argentina (Peron; military/centrist): success (CO)
1955 China (Zhou; communist): failure (CO)
1955 Vietnam (Ho; communist): success (SE)
1956 Hungary (Hegedus; communist): success (CO)
1957 Egypt (Nasser; military/nationalist): failure (CO)
1957 Haiti (Sylvain; left/populist): success (CO)
1957 Syria (Kuwatli; neutralist/Pan-Arabist): failure (CO)
1958 Japan (*; left-center): success (SE)
1958 Chile (*; leftists): success (SE)
1958 Iraq (Feisal; monarchist): success (CO)
1958 Laos (Phouma; nationalist): success (CO)
1958 Sudan (Sovereignty Council; nationalist): success (CO)
1958 Lebanon (*; leftist): success (SE)
1958 Syria (Kuwatli; neutralist/Pan-Arabist): failure (CO)
1958 Indonesia (Sukarno; militarist/neutralist): failure (SE)
1959 Laos (Phouma; nationalist): success (CO)
1959 Nepal (*; left-centrist): success (SE)
1959 Cambodia (Sihanouk; moderate/neutralist): failure (CO)
1960 Ecuador (Ponce; left/populist): success (CO)
1960 Laos (Phouma; nationalist): success (CO)
1960 Iraq (Qassem; rightist /militarist): failure (CO)
1960 S. Korea (Syngman; rightist): success (CO)
1960 Turkey (Menderes; liberal): success (CO)
1961 Haiti (Duvalier; rightist/militarist): success (CO)
1961 Cuba (Castro; communist): failure (CO)
1961 Congo (Lumumba; leftist/pan-Africanist): success (CO)
1961 Dominican Republic (Trujillo; rightwing/military): success (CO)
1962 Brazil (Goulart; liberal/neutralist): failure (SE)
1962 Dominican Republic (*; left/populist): success (SE)
1962 Indonesia (Sukarno; militarist/neutralist): failure (CO)
1963 Dominican Republic (Bosch; social democrat): success (CO)
1963 Honduras (Montes; left/populist): success (CO)
1963 Iraq (Qassem; militarist/rightist): success (CO)
1963 S. Vietnam (Diem; rightist): success (CO)
1963 Cambodia (Sihanouk; moderate/neutralist): failure (CO)
1963 Guatemala (Ygidoras; rightist/reform): success (CO)
1963 Ecuador (Velasco; reform militarist): success (CO)
1963 United States (Kennedy; liberal): success (CO)
1964 Guyana (Jagan; populist/reformist): success (CO)
1964 Bolivia (Paz; centrist/neutralist): success (CO)
1964 Brazil (Goulart; liberal/neutralist): success (CO)
1964 Chile (Allende; social democrat/marxist): success (SE)
1965 Indonesia (Sukarno; militarist/neutralist): success (CO)
1966 Ghana (Nkrumah; leftist/pan-Africanist): success (CO)
1966 Bolivia (*; leftist): success (SE)
1966 France (de Gaulle; centrist): failure (CO)
1967 Greece (Papandreou; social democrat): success (CO)
1968 Iraq (Arif; rightist): success (CO)
1969 Panama (Torrijos; military/reform populist): failure (CO)
1969 Libya (Idris; monarchist): success (CO)
1970 Bolivia (Ovando; reform nationalist): success (CO)
1970 Cambodia (Sihanouk; moderate/neutralist): success (CO)
1970 Chile (Allende; social democrat/Marxist): failure (SE)
1971 Bolivia (Torres; nationalist/neutralist): success (CO)
1971 Costa Rica (Figueres; reform liberal): failure (CO)
1971 Liberia (Tubman; rightist): success (CO)
1971 Turkey (Demirel; center-right): success (CO)
1971 Uruguay (Frente Amplio; leftist): success (SE)
1972 El Salvador (*; leftist): success (SE)
1972 Australia (Whitlam; liberal/labor): failure (SE)
1973 Chile (Allende; social democrat/Marxist): success (CO)
1974 United States (Nixon; centrist): success (CO)
1975 Australia (Whitlam; liberal/labor): success (CO)
1975 Congo (Mobutu; military/rightist): failure (CO)
1975 Bangladesh (Mujib; nationalist): success (CO)
1976 Jamaica (Manley; social democrat): failure (SE)
1976 Portugal (JNS; military/leftist): success (SE)
1976 Nigeria (Mohammed; military/nationalist): success (CO)
1976 Thailand (*; rightist): success (CO)
1976 Uruguay (Bordaberry; center-right): success (CO)
1977 Pakistan (Bhutto: center/nationalist): success (CO)
1978 Dominican Republic (Balaguer; center): success (SE)
1979 S. Korea (Park; rightist): success (CO)
1979 Nicaragua (Sandinistas; leftist): failure (CO)
1980 Bolivia (Siles; centrist/reform): success (CO)
1980 Iran (Khomeini; Islamic nationalist): failure (CO)
1980 Italy (*; leftist): success (SE)
1980 Liberia (Tolbert; rightist): success (CO)
1980 Jamaica (Manley; social democrat): success (SE)
1980 Dominica (Seraphin; leftist): success (SE)
1980 Turkey (Demirel; center-right): success (CO)
1981 Seychelles (René; socialist): failure (CO)
1981 Spain (Suarez; rightist/neutralist): failure (CO)
1981 Panama (Torrijos; military/reform populist); success (CO)
1981 Zambia (Kaunda; reform nationalist): failure (CO)
1982 Mauritius (*; center-left): failure (SE)
1982 Spain (Suarez; rightist/neutralist): success (SE)
1982 Iran (Khomeini; Islamic nationalist): failure (CO)
1982 Chad (Oueddei; Islamic nationalist): success (CO)
1983 Mozambique (Machel; socialist): failure (CO)
1983 Grenada (Bishop; socialist): success (OF)
1984 Panama (*; reform/centrist): success (SE)
1984 Nicaragua (Sandinistas; leftist): failure (SE)
1984 Surinam (Bouterse; left/reformist/neutralist): success (CO)
1984 India (Gandhi; nationalist): success (CO)
1986 Libya (Qaddafi; Islamic nationalist): failure (OF)
1987 Fiji (Bavrada; liberal): success (CO)
1989 Panama (Noriega; military/reform populist): success (OF)
1990 Haiti (Aristide; liberal reform): failure (SE)
1990 Nicaragua (Ortega; Christian socialist): success (SE)
1991 Albania (Alia; communist): success (SE)
1991 Haiti (Aristide; liberal reform): success (CO)
1991 Iraq (Hussein; military/rightist): failure (OF)
1991 Bulgaria (BSP; communist): success (SE)
1992 Afghanistan (Najibullah; communist): success (CO)
1993 Somalia (Aidid; right/militarist): failure (OF)
1993 Cambodia (Han Sen/CPP; leftist): failure (SE)
1993 Burundi (Ndadaye; conservative): success (CO)
1993 Azerbaijan (Elchibey; reformist): success (CO)
1994 El Salvador (*; leftist): success (SE)
1994 Rwanda (Habyarimana; conservative): success (CO)
1994 Ukraine (Kravchuk; center-left): success (SE)
1995 Iraq (Hussein; military/rightist): failure (CO)
1996 Bosnia (Karadzic; centrist): success (CO)
1996 Russia (Zyuganov; communist): success (SE)
1996 Congo (Mobutu; military/rightist): success (CO)
1996 Mongolia (*; center-left): success (SE)
1998 Congo (Kabila; rightist/military): success (CO)
1998 United States (Clinton; conservative): failure (CO)
1998 Indonesia (Suharto; military/rightist): success (CO)
1999 Yugoslavia (Milosevic; left/nationalist): success (SE)
2000 United States (Gore; conservative): success (SE)
2000 Ecuador (NSC; leftist): success: (CO)
2001 Afghanistan (Omar; rightist/Islamist): success (OF)
2001 Belarus (Lukashenko; leftist): failure (SE)
2001 Nicaragua (Ortega; Christian socialist): success (SE)
2001 Nepal (Birendra; nationalist/monarchist): success (CO)
2002 Venezuela (Chavez; reform-populist): failure (CO)
2002 Bolivia (Morales; leftist/MAS): success (SE)
2002 Brazil (Lula; center-left): failure (SE)
We should keep in mind that the goals of the imperialist in each of these instances are multiple: acquisition of access to local markets of all varieties; imposition of neoliberal policy; destruction of any potential alternative to the techno-fascist ruling order; provision of incentive for a sprawling parasitical and parastatal medical-intelligence-military-industrial complex (MIMIC); production of official villains for propaganda purposes; intimidation of non-combatants (as in the year 1945), and continuing political hegemony of the transnational elite based in DC.
2. Chronological list of US air warfare campaigns:
Japan (1943-45): conventional;
China (1945-49): conventional; biological
Korea (1950-53): conventional; biological; chemical; incendiary
China (1951-52): conventional; biological; chemical
Guatemala (1954): conventional
Indonesia (1958): conventional
Cuba (1959-61): conventional; (biochemical attacks in other years)
Guatemala (1960): conventional
Vietnam (1961-73): conventional; chemical; biological; cluster
Congo (1964): conventional
Peru (1965): conventional
Laos (1964-73): conventional; chemical; biological; cluster
Guatemala (1967-69): conventional
Cambodia (1969-70): conventional; chemical; biological
Cambodia (1975): conventional
El Salvador (1980-89): conventional
Nicaragua (1980-89): conventional
Grenada (1983): conventional
Lebanon (1983-4): conventional
Syria (1984): conventional
Libya (1986): conventional
Iran (1987): conventional
Panama (1989): conventional; chemical; biological
Iraq (1991-2002): conventional; chemical; biological; cluster; DU
Kuwait (1991): conventional; chemical; biological; cluster; DU
Somalia (1993): conventional
Bosnia (1993-95): conventional; cluster; DU
Sudan (1998): conventional; biological
Afghanistan (1998): conventional
Yugoslavia (1999): conventional; chemical; biological; cluster; DU
Afghanistan (2001-02): conventional; chemical; biological; cluster; DU
3. Chronological list of US client states: [under construction]
1847 Liberia: to present
1848 Mexico: to 1911
1893 Hawaii: to 1959
1899 Cuba: to 1959
1903 Dominican Republic: to present
1903 Honduras: to present
1912 China: to 1949
1922 Italy: to 1941
1928 Portugal: to 1974
1933 Germany: to 1941
1939 Spain: to present
1943 Italy: to present
1944 Saudi Arabia: to present
1945 France: to 1965
1945 Japan: to present
1945 West Germany: to 1960
1945 South Korea: to present
1945 Burma: to 1962
1946 Thailand: to present
1947 Greece: to 1964
1947 Turkey: to present
1948 Israel: to present
1949 Taiwan: to present
1950 Colombia: to present
1952 Australia: to present
1952 Lebanon: to present
1952 New Zealand: to 1985
1953 Iran: to 1979
1954 Guatemala: to present
1954 Pakistan: to present
1959 Paraguay: to present
1955 South Vietnam: to 1975
1957 Haiti: to present
1957 Jordan: to present
1960 Congo/Zaire: to present
1963 Iraq: to 1990
1964 Bolivia: to present
1964 Brazil: to present
1965 Greece: to present
1965 Peru: to present
1966 Central African Republic: to present
1969 Oman: to present
1970 Egypt: to present
1970 Cambodia: to 1979
1970 Uruguay: to present
1975 Morocco: to present
1976 Portugal: to present
1978 Kenya: to present
1978 S. Africa: to 1990
1979 Yemen: to present
1979 Somalia: to 1991
1982 Chad: to present
1982 Mexico: to present
1984 Brunei: to present
1988 Burma: to present
1992 Angola: to 2002
1993 Azerbaijan: to present
1993 Eritrea: to present
1993 Nigeria: to present
1994 Ukraine: to present
1995 Ethiopia: to present
2000 Kyrgyzstan: to present
2001 Afghanistan: to present
[all of Latin America (sans Mexico, Venezuela, Costa Rica, Cuba 1964-1990); a legion of others ]
4. Chronological list of states held in the manacles of debt-leverage imperialism:
N.B. these states are held in the thralldom of odious debt imposed upon them by (typically) quasi-fascistic regimes who 1) often enough were empowered via United States state terrorism and 2) accepted the terms of United States dominated Bretton Woods restructuring programs.
Many countries found themselves in dire monetary and fiscal straits in the early 1980safter the Nixon shocks, the various oil embargoes, and the Volcker interest rate hikes. At this time of the debt crisis, the IMF and World Bank became lenders of last resort for regimes unable to meet balance of payments obligations to imperialist-controlled banksbut such lending comes with a cost: dismantle any and all policies that dont adhere to the mystical mantras of neoliberalism (ie such policies as protectionism, capital regulation, state industry, wage control, labor and environmental regulation, resistance to currency devaluation, autochthonous/non-export production, etc had to go); such is the nature of the structural adjustment program (SAP).
Note further that these policies were the Reaganites answer to the Crisis of Democracy (as defined by the geniuses in the Trilateral Commission) that was occurring on a global scale and to the relative loss of US geopolitical power in the late 1970s. In order to disrupt the G-77, UNCTAD, and other international movements modeled on the success of OPEC, the debt crisis and its neoliberal response were engineered for the sake of ushering in a new world order of managed friggin chaos. It is good to recall that a number of countries that have refused SAP have been attacked (e.g., Serbia) and/or destabilized (e.g., Belarus). It is also prudent to realize that many an ethnic, religious, or otherwise vaguely described civil war has been caused directly by SAP (e.g., Somalia, Yugoslavia).
Moreover note that the meaning of debt crisis is that subjugated nations that were unable to meet balance of payments obligations to imperialist-controlled banks threatened the survival of such banks, and thus this privately held debt was transferred to public institutions, thereby socializing risk while insuring the sanctity of corporate profit. (I.e., crisis does not here refer to those horrors being inflicted on subjugated peoples.)
[Year of initial SAP implementation nations]
1981 Brazil; Mauritius; Uganda
1982 Mexico; Ecuador; Bangladesh; Central African Republic; Argentina; Tanzania
1983 Chile; Ghana; Kenya; Malawi; Niger; Somalia
1984 Congo/Zaire; Mauritania; Senegal
1985 Bolivia; Botswana; Costa Rica; Gambia; Guinea; Sao Tome
1986 Madagascar; Nigeria; Philippines; Sierra Leone; Tunisia
1987 Zambia; Algeria; Guinea-Bissau; Mozambique; Sudan; Yugoslavia
1988 Equatorial Guinea; Guyana; Hungary; Pakistan; Sri Lanka
1989 Cameroon; El Salvador; Jordan; Lesotho; Trinidad; Venezuela; Congo (RC); Togo
1990 Colombia; Czech Republic; Nicaragua; Peru; Rwanda
1991 Angola; Burkina Faso; Cote dIvoire; Egypt; Ethiopia; India; Romania; Zimbabwe
1992 Latvia; Reunion; Ukraine; Belarus; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Armenia; Kazakhstan; Uzbekistan; Moldova
1993 Benin; Gabon; Russia; S. Africa; Surinam
1994 Eritrea; Cambodia; Haiti; Mali
1995 Seychelles; Swaziland; Tajikistan
1996 Bosnia-Herzegovina; Comoros; Uruguay
1997 Bulgaria; Djibouti; Indonesia
1998 Mongolia; Paraguay; S. Korea; Thailand; Yemen
5. Rough chronological list of foreign territories hosting US military installations. The range of years for each group attempts to indicate when the country in question first began its role as host for US military facilities. NB Im still corroborating these. [under construction]
Mahan Doctrine group (1898-1904): Guam; Puerto Rico; Philippines; Cuba; Hawaii, Panama
Monroe Doctrine-Crisis of Capital group (1905-1935): Antarctica; Azores; Galapagos; Haiti; Liberia; Nicaragua; Samoa
Welt Krieg group (1939-1953): Antigua; Australia; Bahamas; Belgium; Bermuda; British Guiana; Burma; Denmark; France; Germany; Greece; Greenland; Iceland; Indonesia; Iran; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Johnston Atoll; Korea; Marshall Islands; Midway Islands; Morocco; Netherlands; Newfoundland; New Zealand; Okinawa; Portugal; Spain; St. Lucia; Taiwan; Thailand; Trinidad; Turkey; United Kingdom; Vietnam
Post-Monroe Doctrine-War on Drugs/Depopulation group (1954-2002): Aruba, Bolivia; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; DRC; Ecuador; El Salvador; Ghana; Guatemala; Honduras; Ivory Coast; Nigeria; Peru; Rwanda; Senegal
Carter Doctrine group (1978-1981): Bahrain; Diego Garcia; Egypt; Israel; Kenya; Oman; Somalia
New World Order-Persian Gulf group (1990-1991): Kuwait; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; UAE; Yemen
New World Order-Balkans group (1991-2001): Albania; Bosnia; Croatia; Hungary; Kosovo; Macedonia
Afghanistan War/Caspian Basin group (2000-2002): Afghanistan; Azerbaijan; Georgia; India; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Pakistan; Tajikistan; Uzbekistan
6. Chronological list of US murder toll: [under construction]
The murder toll has been achieved by either direct violence (e.g. the firebombing and nuking of Japan or the firebombing of Dresden) or indirect/proxy low intensity conflict (e.g. Rwanda in the 90s or Nicaragua in the 80s). (I have not here accounted for the deaths attributable to SAP.) Some extremely conservative estimates
Americans (1776-2002): 4M
West Africans (1776-1865): 4M
Philippines (1898-1904): 600K
Germany (1945): 200K
Japan (1945): 900K
China (1945-60): 200K
Greece (1947-49): 100K
Korea (1951-53): 2M
Guatemala (1954-2002): 300K
Vietnam (1960-75): 2M
Laos (1965-73): 500K
Cambodia (1969-75): 1M
Indonesia (1965): 500K
Colombia (1966-2002): 500K
Oman (1970): 10K
Bangladesh (1971): 2M
Uganda (1971-1979): 200K
Chile (1973-1990): 20K
East Timor (1975): 200K
Angola (1975-2002): 1.5M
Argentina (1976-1979): 30K
Afghanistan (1978-2002): 1M
El Salvador (1980-95): 100K
Nicaragua (1980-90): 100K
Mozambique (1981-1988): 1M
Turkey (1984-2002): 50K
Rwanda (1990-1996): 1M
Iraq (1991-2002): 1M
Somalia (1991-1994): 300K
Yugoslavia (1991-2002): 300K
Liberia (1992-2002): 150K
Burundi (1993-1999): 200K
Sudan (1998): 100K
Congo (1998-2002): 3M
We should also take note that the United States bears more than superficial responsibility for the Nazi Holocaust: e.g., the turning away of Jewish, Romani, and other refugees; funding the concentration camp system; underwriting the Third Reichs military; delay in opening a western front; policies of appeasement before the war; siding with the fascists during the Spanish Civil War; turning down Stalins offer to attack Germany jointly in 1938; providing theoretical inspiration for lebensraum, final solutions, anti-communism, anti-Semitism, etc; rebuilding Germany after the war with the fascist infrastructure still intact; saving war criminals; general ideological support; and so forth.
7. Alphabetical list of rightwing dictators, reactionary movements, and other reprehensible figures empowered/materially supported by the US: [under construction]
It seems as though the number one criterion for getting a job as the head of a client state is a willingness to butcher leftists. Indeed, the use of unsavory rightists by the United States began neither with the anti-Castro Cuban émigré community, nor with the Afghan mujaheddin alumni, oh Nelly no!
[the dates provided are sloppily done, I concede. At times, they are just the general duration of the given regime (e.g., Selassie). Most others are the duration of US support while the regime lasted (e.g., Hitler, Saddam Hussein, etc.)]
Sani (Nigeria: 1993-2000)
Afwerki, Isaias (Eritrea: 1993-2002)
Amin, Idi (Uganda: 1971-1979)
Arévalo, Marco (Guatemala: 1985-1991)
Bakr, Ahmad (Iraq: 1968-1979)
Banzer Suarez, Hugo (Bolivia: 1971-1978)
Bao Dai (Vietnam: 1949-1955)
Barak, Ehud (Israel: 1999-2001)
Barre, Siad (Somalia: 1979-1991)
Batista, Fulgencio (Cuba: 1940-44/1952-1959)
Begin, Menachem (Israel: 1977-1983)
Ben-Gurion, David (Israel: 1948-1953, 1955-1963)
Betancourt Bello, Rumulo (Venezuela: 1959-1964)
Bokassa, Jean-Bedel (Central African Republic: 1966-1976)
Bolkiah, Sir Hassanal (Brunei: 1984-2002)
Botha, P.W. (South Africa: 1978-1989)
Branco, Humberto (Brazil: 1964-1966)
Carmona, Pedro (Venezuela: 2002)
Cedras, Raoul (Haiti: 1991)
Chamoun, Camille (Lebanon: 1952-1958)
Chiang Kai-shek (China: 1928-1949/Taiwan: 1949-1975)
Christiani, Alfredo (El Salvador: 1989-1994)
Chun Doo Hwan (S. Korea: 1980-1988)
Cordova, Roberto (Honduras: 1981-1985)
Diaz, Porfirio (Mexico: 1876-1911)
Diem, Ngo Dinh (S. Vietnam: 1955-1963)
Doe, Samuel (Liberia: 1980-90)
Duvalier, Francois (Haiti: 1957-1971)
Duvalier, Jean Claude (Haiti: 1971-1986)
Eshkol, Levi (Israel: 1963-1969)
Fahd bin'Abdul-'Aziz (Saudi Arabia: 1969-2002)
Feisal, King (Iraq: 1939-1958)
Franco, Francisco (Spain: 1937-1975)
Fujimori, Alberto (Peru: 1990-2002)
Habre, Hissen (Chad: 1982-1990);
Hassan II (Morocco: 1961-1999)
Hitler, Adolf (Germany: 1933-1939)
Hussein, King (Jordan: 1952-1999)
Hussein, Saddam (Iraq: 1979-1990)
Kabila, Laurent (CDR: 1997-1998)
Karzai, Hamid (Afghanistan: 2001-2002)
Khan, Ayub (Pakistan: 1958-1969)
Koirala, B. (Nepal: 1959-1960)
Lon Nol (Cambodia: 1970-1975)
Marcos, Ferdinand (Philippines: 1965-1986)
Martinez, Maximiliano (El Salvador: 1931-1944)
Meir, Golda (Israel: 1969-1974)
Meles Zenawi (Ethiopia: 1995-2002)
Mobutu Sese Seko (Zaire: 1965-1997)
Moi, Daniel (Kenya: 1978-2002)
Montt, Efrain (Guatemala: 1982-1983)
Mubarak, Hosni (Egypt: 1981-2002)
Museveni, Yoweri (Uganda: 1986-2002)
Musharaf, Pervez (Pakistan: 1999-2002)
Mussolini, Benito (Italy: 1922-1939)
Netanyahu, Benjamin (Israel: 1996-1999)
Noriega, Manuel (Panama: 1983-1989)
Odria, Manuel (Peru: 1948-1956)
Omar, Mohamed (Afghanistan: 1996-2001)
Ozal, Turgut (Turkey: 1989-1993)
Pahlevi , Rezi (Iran: 1953-1979)
Papadopoulos, George (Greece: 1967-1973)
Park Chung Hee (S. Korea: 1960-1979)
Pastrana, Andres (Colombia: 1998-2002)
Peres, Shimon (Israel: 1977, 1984-1986, 1995-1996)
Perez Jimenez, Marcos (Venezuela: 1952-58)
Pinilla, Gustavo (Colombia: 1953-1957)
Pinochet, Augusto (Chile: 1973-1990)
Pol Pot (Cambodia: 1975-1998)
al-Qaddafi, Muammar (Libya: 1969-1971)
Rabin, Yitzhak (Israel: 1974-1977, 1992-1995)
Rabuka, Sitiveni (Fiji: 1987, 1992-1999)
Al Sadat, Anwar (Egypt: 1970-1981)
Selassie, Halie (Ethiopia: 1941-1974)
Salazar, Antonio (Portugal: 1932-1968)
Saud, Abdul Aziz (Saudi Arabia: 1944-1969)
Seaga, Edward (Jamaica: 1980-1989)
Shamir, Yitzhak (Israel: 1983-1984; 1986-1992)
Sharett, Moshe (Israel: 1953-1955)
Sharon, Ariel (Israel: 2001-2002)
Smith, Ian (Rhodesia: 1965-1979)
Somoza Sr., Anastasio (Nicaragua: 1936-1956)
Somoza Jr., Anastasio (Nicaragua: 1963-1979)
Stroessner, Alfredo (Paraguay: 1954-1989)
Suharto, General (Indonesia: 1966-1999)
Syngman Rhee (S. Korea: 1948-1960)
Tolbert, William (Liberia: 1971-1980)
Trujillo, Rafael (Dominican Republic: 1930-1960)
Tubman, William (Liberia: 1944-1971)
Uribe, Alvaro (Colombia: 2002)
Videla, Jorge (Argentina: 1976-1981)
Yeltsin, Boris (Russia: 1991-1999)
Zaim, Hosni (Syria: 1949)
Zia Ul-Haq, Mohammed (Pakistan: 1977-1988)
RPF (contra French client Rwanda);
SPLA contra Islamist Sudan, (a French client);
clients in Cameroon, Congo, Ivory Coast, Togo and Benin, after subverted elections (contra French proxies);
Dalai Lama (Tibet);
bin Ladens al Qaida;
Nazi war criminals and collaborators knowingly rescued in the years after WW2 by US intelligence for use as covert assets against the USSR:
R. Gehlen; O. Skorzeny; A. Brunner; O. von Bolschwing; W. von Braun; M. Lebed; A. Vlasov; I. Docheff; K. Dragonovich; I. Bogolepov; C. Bolydreff; A. Berzins; H. Herwarth; K. Barbie; I. Demjanjuk; W. Dornberger; V. Hazners; B. Maikovskis; E. Laipenieks; N. Nazarenko; L. Pasztor; R. Ostrowsky; L. Kairys; P. Shandruk; T. Soobzokov; S. Stankievich; and literally thousands of others.
8. List of international bodies designed/employed/perverted by the United States: [under construction]
UN/ OECD/ WHO
9. Chronological list of interventions by the United States, with the purpose of opposing (or aiding opposition to) popular resistance movementswhether by means of overt force (OF) or covert operation (CO):
[Date place (targeted movement): outcome (means)]
United States (numerous slave rebellions): success (OF)
1782-1787 United States (Wyoming Valley): success (OF)
1786-1787 United States (Shays Rebellion): success (OF)
1790-1795 United States (Ohio Valley tribes): success (OF)
1794-1794 United States (Whiskey Rebellion): success (OF)
1798-1800 United States (Alien & Sedition trials): success (CO)
1799-1799 United States (Fries Rebellion): success (OF)
1805-1806 United States (Boston union conspiracy): success (CO)
1806-1807 United States (Burrs Insurrection): success (OF)
1810-1821 Spanish Florida (Africans, Natives, etc): success (OF)
1811-1811 United States (Tecumsehs Confederacy): success (OF)
1813-1814 United States (Creeks): success (OF)
1822-1822 United States (Veseys Rebellion): success (CO)
1823-1824 United States (Arikara): success (OF)
1826-1827 United States (Philadelphia union conspiracy): success (CO)
1827-1827 United States (Fever River & Winnebago): success (OF)
1831-1831 United States (Turners rebellion): success (OF)
1831-1831 United States (Sac & Fox): success (OF)
1832-1832 United States (Black Hawks): success (OF)
1833-1834 Argentina (rebellion): success (OF)
1835-1835 United States (Murrels Uprising): success (CO)
1835-1836 Peru (rebellion): success (OF)
1835-1842 United States (Seminoles): success (OF)
1836-1837 United States (Sabine, Osage): success (OF)
1836-1844 Mexico (anti-Texans, Natives, etc): success (OF)
1837-1838 United States (massive strikes): success (OF)
1838-1839 United States (Mormons): success (OF)
1842-1842 United States (Dorrs Rebellion): success (OF)
1847-1855 United States (Cayuse): success (OF)
1850-1851 United States (Mariposa tribes): success (OF)
1851-1859 United States (Washington tribes): success (OF)
1852-1853 Argentina (rebellion in Buenos Aires): success (OF
1854-1856 China (rebellion): success (OF)
1855-1856 United States (Sioux): success (OF)
1855-1858 United States (Seminoles): success (OF)
1855-1858 Nicaragua (Walkers invasion): success (OF)
1855-1860 United States (Bleeding Kansas): success (OF)
1857-1857 United States (Cheyenne): success (OF)
1857-1858 United States (Mormons): success (OF)
1858-1858 Uruguay (rebellion in Montevideo): success (OF)
1858-1859 United States (Comanche): success (OF)
1859-1859 United States (Brownists at Harpers Ferry): success (OF)
1860-1860 Angola (rebellion in Kissembo): success (OF)
1860-1861 Colombia (rebellion): success (OF)
1861-1865 United States (confederate rebellion): success (OF)
1861-1865 United States (Navajo): success (OF)
1861-1886 United States (Apache): success (OF)
1862-1864 United States (Sioux): success (OF)
1863-1863 United States (draft riots): success (OF)
1863-1864 United States (massive strikes): success (OF)
1864-1864 United States (Sand Hill Massacre): success (OF)
1865-1865 Panama (rebellion): success (OF)
1865-1867 United States (Sioux): success (OF)
1867-1867 Formosa (rebellion): success (OF)
1867-1875 United States (Comanche): success (OF)
1868-1868 Japan (rebellion): success (OF)]
1868-1868 United States (Washita/South Plains tribes): success (OF)
1868-1868 Uruguay (rebellion): success (OF)
1871-1871 Korea (rebellion): success (OF)
1872-1873 United States (Modocs): success (OF)
1874-1875 United States (Red River War): success (OF)
1874-1874 United States (Kiowa): success (OF)
1876-1877 United States (Sioux/Cheyenne): success (OF)
1877-1877 United States (St Louis general strike, others): success (OF)
1877-1877 United States (Nez Perce): success (OF)
1878-1878 United States (Idaho tribes): success (OF)
1878-1879 United States (Cheyenne): success (OF)
1879-1880 United States (Ute): success (OF)
1885-1885 United States (New York textile strikes): failure (OF)
1886-1886 United States (massive strikes, Haymarket): success (OF)
1888-1888 Korea (rebellion): success (OF)
1888-1893 Hawaii (rebellion contra Dole): success (OF)
1888-1889 Samoa (rebellion): success (OF)
1890-1891 United States (Pine Ridge, Wounded Knee): success (OF)
1891-1891 Haiti (Navassa uprising): success (OF)
1891-1892 Chile (rebellion): success (OF)
1892-1892 United States (Idaho miners): success (OF)
1893-1894 United States (massive strikes): success (OF)
1894-1894 Nicaragua (Bluefields unrest): success (OF)
1894-1894 United States (Chicago rail/Pullman strikes): success (OF)
1894-1895 Brazil (rebellion): success (OF)
1894-1896 Korea (post Sino-Japanese war rebellion): success (OF)
1896-1899 Nicaragua (rebellions): success (OF)
1898-1900 United States (Chippewa at Leech Lake): success (OF)
1898-1902 Philippines (nationalist resistance): success (OF)
1899-1899 Samoa (Mataafa): success (OF)
1899-1901 United States (Idaho miners): success (OF)
1900-1941 China (Boxers, communists, etc): success (OF)
1901-1901 United States (Creek uprising): success (OF)
1901-1901 United States (Steel strikes): failure (OF)
1901-1902 Colombia (rebellions): success (OF)
1901-1913 Philippines (Moslem Moro rebellion): success (OF)
1903-1903 Honduras (rebellion): success (OF)
1903-1904 Dominican Republic (rebellion): success (OF)
1904-1909 United States (Kentucky tobacco farmers): success (OF)
1906-1909 Cuba (rebellion): success (OF)
1907-1911 Honduras (leftists, Bonilla): success (OF)
1909-1911 United States (NY/Triangle textile strikes): failure (OF)
1911-1912 China (rebellions): success (OF)
1912-1925 Nicaragua (leftists): success (OF)
1913-1919 Mexico (various rebellions, Villa): failure (OF)
1914-1914 United States (Ludlow Massacre): success (OF)
1914-1924 Dominican Republic (various factions): success (OF)
1915-1934 Haiti (Sam, etc): success (OF)
1916-1917 United States (Arizona miners strike): success (OF)
1917-1918 United States (IWW): success (CO)
1917-1919 United States (Espionage Act trials): success (CO)
1917-1922 Cuba (rebellions): success (OF)
1918-1920 Panama (strikes, election protests, etc): success (OF)
1919-1919 Honduras (rebellion): success (OF)
1919-1920 United States (Palmer Raids): success (CO)
1919-1920 Costa Rica (Tinoco, etc): success (CO)
1919-1920 United States (Great Steel Strike, others): success (OF)
1920-1921 United States (West Virginian miners): success (OF)
1920-1928 United States (prison rebellions): success (OF)
1920-1920 Guatemala (Unionists): success (OF)
1922-1922 Turkey (Nationalists): success (OF)
1922-1923 United States (massive strikes): success (OF)
1924-1925 Honduras (rebellions): success (OF)
1925-1925 Panama (general strike): success (OF)
1926-1933 Nicaragua (Sandino, others): success (OF)
1931-1932 El Salvador (Marti): success (OF)
1932-1932 United States (DC Bonus Strikers): success (OF)
1933-1933 Cuba (rebellion): success (OF)
1935-1935 Philippines (Sakdal Uprising): success (OF)
1938-1957 United States (leftists: HUAC, McCarthyism): success (CO)
1943-1946 United States (unprecedented strikes): success (OF)
1944-1951 Greece (EAM/ELAS/KKE): success (CO)
1945-1949 China (maoism): failure (OF)
1945-1954 Vietnam (Viet Minh): failure (CO)
1946-1947 S. Korea (mass resistance to US military rule): success (OF)
1947-1950 Turkey (TKP): success (CO)
1948-1948 S. Korea (democratic resistance): success (OF)
1948-1954 Philippines (Huks): success (CO)
1950-1951 United States (Puerto Rican independence): success (OF)
1950-1953 United States (many prison rebellions): success (OF)
1952-1975 Japan (general anti-US protests): success (OF)
1952-1957 Japan (protestors in Okinawa): success (OF)
1953-1963 Syria (ASRP/Baathists): failure (CO)
1954-1962 Algeria (FLN): failure (CO)
1956-1971 United States (Cointelpro-CPUSA): success (CO)
1956-1975 South Vietnam (NLF): failure (OF)
1957-1959 Lebanon (leftists): success (OF)
1957-1958 Jordan (leftists/anti-monarchists): success (OF)
1959-1960 Haiti (rebels contra Duvalier): success (OF)
1960-1971 United States (Cointelpro-Puertorriquenos): success (CO)
1960-1966 Peru (leftist rebels/PCP): success (CO)
1960-1963 Venezuela (FALN; leftist): success (CO)
1962-1969 United States (Cointelpro-SWP): success (CO)
1963-1965 El Salvador (various rebels): success (CO)
1964-1964 Panama (Canal activists): success (OF)
1965-1968 United States (mass urban race riots): failure (OF)
1965-1966 Dominican Republic (Bosch supporters): success (OF)
1965-1966 Indonesia (PKI): success (CO)
1965-2000 East Timor (independence movement): failure (CO)
1966-1973 United States (massive antiwar protest): failure (OF)
1966-2002 Colombia (FARC/ELN): success (CO)
1966-1988 Namibia (SWAPO): failure (CO)
1966-1967 Guatemala (leftists): success (CO)
1967-1971 United States (Cointelpro-SCLC, BPP, CORE, etc): failure (CO)
1967-1967 United States (Detroit black workers): success (OF)
1967-1971 Uruguay (Tupamaros): success (CO)
1967-1968 United States (San Quentin prison rebellions): success (OF)
1967-1969 Japan (protestors in Okinawa): success (OF)
1968-1969 United States (MLK assassination riots): success (OF)
1968-1971 United States (Cointelpro-SDS): success (CO)
1969-1970 United States (IAT at Alcatraz): success (OF)
1969-1970 Oman (Dhufar Rebellion): success (CO)
1969-2002 Philippines (maoism): success (CO)
1970-1970 United States (several prison rebellions): success (OF)
1970-1970 United States (campus uprisings: KSU, etc): success (OF)
1970-1970 Jordan (Palestinian resistance): success (CO)
1970-1972 Bangladesh (independence movement): failure (CO)
1970-1972 Trinidad (rebellions): success (OF)
1971-1971 United States (post-Jackson murder prison riots): success (OF)
1972-1973 Nicaragua (Sandinistas): success (OF)
1973-1973 United States (Lakota at Wounded Knee): success (OF)
1973-1976 United States (Cointelpro-AIM): success (CO)
1974-2002 Israel (PLO): success (CO)
1974-2002 Turkey (PKK): success (CO)
1977-1978 United States (coal miners): failure (OF)
1980-2002 Peru (MRTA/Shining Path): success (CO)
1981-1992 El Salvador (FMLN, etc): success (CO)
1981-1990 Honduras (PCH, FPR, etc): success (CO)
1981-1981 United States (air controllers strike): success (OF)
1982-1983 Morocco (MOL): success (CO)
1982-1984 Lebanon (leftist & Moslem resistance): failure (OF)
1986-1990 Bolivia (peasants): success (OF)
1989-1989 St. Croix (Black rebellion): success (OF)
1992-1992 United States (LA uprising): success (OF)
1994-2002 Mexico (EZLN/Zapatistas): success (CO)
1995-1998 Japan (protestors in Okinawa): success (OF)
1996-2002 Nepal (CPN): success (CO)
as isolationist pre-1941?
hahahahaha! DoS-confessed conflicts & interventions up to WW2 (NB other unconfessed existtracking them is the tricky part).
Contra major European powers
Germany: 1917-18, 1941-45
Great Britain: 1775-1783, 1812-1815
Spain [and colonies]: 1806-10, 1812, 1813, 1814, 1816-18, 1898
Contra minor powers, colonies, marginal states, non-European major powers
Africa [west coast]: 1820-23, 1843 [allegedly contra slave trade]
Amelia Is.: 1812, 1817
Algeria/Algiers: 1815 [the 2nd Barbary War]
Argentina: 1833, 1852-3, 1890
Bering Sea: 1891 [contra alleged seal poaching LOL]
Caribbean: 1814-25 [contra alleged piracy]
China: 1843, 1854-6, 1859, 1866, 1894-5, 1898-9, 1900, 1911, 1912-41
Colombia: 1868, 1873, 1895, 1902
Costa Rica: 1921
Cuba: 1822-25, 1906-9, 1912, 1917-22, 1933
Dominican Republic: 1799, 1903-4, 1914
Fiji: 1840, 1855, 1858 [the most curious in the bunch, IMHO]
Greenland: 1941 [defense agreement]
Haiti: 1888, 1891, 1914, 1915-34
Hawaii: 1870, 1874, 1893
Honduras: 1903, 1907, 1911, 1912, 1919, 1924-5
Iceland: 1941 [defense agreement]
Japan: 1853-4, 1863, 1868, 1941-45
Johanna Is.: 1851
Kingsmills Is.: 1841
Korea: 1871, 1888, 1889, 1894-6, 1904-5
Libya/Tripoli: 1801-1805, 1815 [the 1st and 3rd Barbary Wars]
Marquesa Is.: 1813-4
Mexico: 1806, 1836, 1842, 1844, 1846-8, 1859, 1866, 1870, 1873, 1876, 1913-9
Nicaragua: 1853, 1854, 1857, 1869, 1894, 1896, 1898-9, 1910, 1912-25, 1926-33
Panama: [Colo] 1856, 1860, 1865, 1885, 1901, [indep] 1903-14, 1918-21, 1925
Puerto Rico: 1824, 1899
Samoa: 1841, 1888-9, 1899
Sumatra: 1832, 1838-9
Turkey: 1851, 1858-9, 1912, 1917-8, 1919, 1922
Uruguay: 1855, 1858, 1868
Scanning the official public acknowledgment list here, we clearly see that the US had extreme paranoia about China, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama: Open Doors, uncooperative neighbors, and two potential canal zones. Also, check the rationale in the official Defense Dept. record for each of the above conflict dates. Many, many times, we have the to protect US interests [or nationals] during a crisis as the proposed justification. Caveat lector.
11. Noteworthy Covert Operations conducted by the United States.
We should keep in mind that the dates given are the confessed dates of operation. In no way does this account for programs that continued to run after they were officially terminated, nor does it reckon with the same practices under different namesor no names at all. It should go without saying that this isnt a complete listing.
(1945-46): OSS rescuing Nazi military scientists for US use
Crowcass: 1945-48): locating thousands of Nazis for later use
Paperclip (1946-1954): continuation and expansion of Overcast
Mockingbird (1947-2002): CIA control of mass media
Bloodstone (1948-50): infiltrating fascists into the USSR
Gladio (1949-90): terrorist actions to discredit the left; assassination, etc.
Ajax (1950-1953): supporting the Shah of Iran and overthrowing Mossadegh
MK-Ultra (1953-1963): CIA experiments with LSD, etc on non-volunteers
Cointelpro (1956-71): FBI destabilization of CP, AIM, SDS, civil rights, etc.
Celeste (1960-61): CIA assassination of UN secretary-general Dag Hammarskjold
Mongoose (1961-63): killing Castro and destabilizing Cuba via CIA agitprop, etc
Northwoods (1962-2002): DoD prepares faked terror attacks qua casus belli
SHAD (1962-1973): DoD performs biochemical weaponry tests on US citizens
Merrimac (1967-68): CIA surveillance of DC
Phoenix (1967-1971): mass agitprop and assassination program in Vietnam
Resistance (1967-68): CIA spying on US student movements
Chaos (1968-1974): CIA domestic espionage on students, activists, etc
Garden Plot (1968-2002): DoD plans for mass repression/concentration camps
Tailwind (1970): killing US defectors in Vietnam with sarin gas
Grillflame (1971-1991): CIA ESP troopers i.e. over-horizon radar
Echelon (1972-2002): NSA electronic surveillance of all communication
Watch Tower (1974-1976): CIA builds an air corridor for narcotics traffic in Colombia
Condor (1975-1977): Security arrangement in S. America to kill leftists
George Orwell (1978-1990): CIA surveillance of US politicians, etc, to protect narcotics traffic
Cyclone (1979-2002): funding violent Islamic fundamentalist groups
Promis (1981-2002): CIA, etc surveillance of financial transactions
JCET (1991-2002): foreign internal defense training programs
Roots (1993-1999): CIA sows fascistic propaganda in Yugoslavia
Storm (1995): ethnic cleansing of Serbs from Krajina
Carnivore (1999-2002): FBI surveillance of www posts, listservs, etc
Magic Lantern (2001-2002): FBI surveillance of PC keystrokes.
Tips (2002-): DoJ civilian informants and denunciations
12. Prominent Front Organizations used to advance US imperialist interests:
Coors Foundation: rightist propaganda slush-fund
AFL-CIO: CIA controlled labor organization
African American Institute: CIA front group
American Council for International Commission of Jurists: CIA front
American Enterprise Foundation: rightist think-tank
American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees: CIA front
American Foreign Policy Council: rightist think-tank
American Friends of the Middle East: CIA front group
American Newspaper Guild: CIA front group
American Society of African Culture: CIA front group
Brookings Institution: rightist think-tank
CANF: anti-Castro lobbyist
Cato Institute: rightist think-tank
Carnegie Endowment: rightist think-tank
Center for Security Policy: rightist think-tank
Center for Strategic and International Studies: rightist think-tank
Competitive Enterprise Institute: rightist think-tank
Ethics and Public Policy Center: rightist think-tank
Ford Foundation: CIA front group
Freedom Forum: rightist think-tank
Fund for International Social and Economic Education: CIA front group
Heritage Foundation: rightist think-tank
Hoover Institution: rightist think-tank
Hudson Institute: rightist think-tank
Institute for Historical Review: neo-fascist lobbyist; Holocaust denier
Institute for International Economics: rightist think-tank
Institute for International Labor Research: CIA front group
International Development Foundation: CIA front group
International Institute for Strategic Studies: rightist think-tank
John Birch Society: virulent anti-communist publicist
John M. Olin Foundation: rightist propaganda slush-fund
Koch Family Foundations: rightist propaganda slush-fund
Liberty Lobby: neo-fascist agitprop
Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation: rightist propaganda slush-fund
Manhattan Institute: rightist think-tank
National Education Association: CIA front group
National Endowment for Democracy: CIA front group
National Student Association: CIA front group
Progress and Freedom Foundation: rightist think-tank
Progressive Policy Institute: rightist think-tank
RAND Corporation: rightist think-tank
Reason Foundation: rightist think-tank
Scaife Family Foundations: rightist propaganda slush-fund
Smith Richardson Foundation: rightist propaganda slush-fund
Soros Foundation: CIA front group
USAID: official humanitarian front used to control food politics
USIA: primary disseminator of official white propaganda
Voice of America: CIA-controlled radio
13. Low intensity wars conducted by the United States and its proxies
(medium intensity warfare = direct and usually acknowledged involvement of US military apparatus; high intensity warfare = Dr. Strangelove stuff: nuclear combat toe-to-toe with the Russkies, &c).
The primary goal of low intensity conflict is to use proxies, intelligence, and special forces to destabilize a region and its official government. The purpose of destabilization is to achieve 1) access to resources amidst the chaos, 2) delegitimation of an enemy political/economic system, 3) influence over specific local groups, and 4) depopulation of regions inhabited by untermenschen.
All leftists should learn about low intensity warfare; it is by far and away one of the most disgusting and useful tools in the imperialist repertoire. Dont let the words low intensity trick you: rivers are dammed with corpses and the fields are sown with the blood of the targeted nation.
1950s: Poland; Ukraine; Russia, China; Thailand; Burma
1960s: Congo; Vietnam; Laos; Cambodia; Thailand; Burma
1970s: Congo; Vietnam; Laos; Cambodia
1980s: Congo; Cambodia; Nicaragua; Afghanistan; Mozambique; Angola; Ethiopia; Yemen; Western Sahara
1990s: Congo; Cambodia; Afghanistan; Yugoslavia; Nigeria; Sierra Leone; Guinea-Bissau; Colombia; Liberia; Sudan; Central African Republic; Equatorial Guinea
14. Proxy Wars fought by the United States, which typically involves the use of clients, dupes, mercenaries, unofficial volunteers, and official, though disavowable, special forces. [under construction]
contra Soviet Union: stock-in-trade Cold War superpower jousting
contra France: after the Soviet Union ended all activities in Africa, the US began its bid to force French proxies out of North Africa.
contra Germany: during the 1990s, Germany and the US used multiple proxies to fight over control of the Balkans, with its precious Corridor 8, thereby ruining the entire region.
contra China: from Cold War crimes to New World Order harassment, the US has used many proxies against the Chinese: Thai, Tibetan, Burmese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Cambodian, Islamic, Taiwanese.
15. Foreign policy doctrines more or less practiced by the United States.
Monroe Doctrine western hemisphere = US property; non-whites = untermenschen
McKinley Doctrine Open Door Policy i.e., China, Pacific = potentially, possibly, most likely US property; non-whites = untermenschen
Roosevelt Corollary western hemisphere = US property, and we mean it this time! non-whites = untermenschen
Taft Doctrine Dollar Diplomacy i.e., western hemisphere = US property, and we mean economically, politically, and all other ways; the Middle East = potentially, possibly, most likely, US property
Wilson Doctrine 14 Points internationalism (i.e., great powers should respect each other; to hell with the rest); western hemisphere = US property, and we really mean it this time! non-whites = untermenschen
Roosevelt Doctrine Good Neighbor Policy! i.e., western hemisphere = US property, and we really really really fucking mean it.
Truman Doctrine aid to fascists in Greece, Turkey, the Philippines, Korea, Vietnam, western Europe, Eastern Europe, North Africa, etc. i.e., what Kennan called Containment.
Eisenhower Doctrine the Middle East = US property; non-whites = untermenschen; massive retaliation
Nixon Doctrine enter neocolonialism: overthrowing governments, installing clients, using local elites to manage foreign populations for US advantage i.e., Asia, Africa, western hemisphere = US property, but were gonna try to be sneaky about it. Overall, see above.
Carter Doctrine the Middle East = US property, and we arent kidding; trilateralism
Reagan Doctrine Rollback; mutually assured destruction; low intensity warfare; support for rightwing Islamist groups, narcotics smuggling, etc.
Bush I Doctrine New World Order; What we say, goes.
Clinton Doctrine New World Order; multilaterally if we can, unilaterally when we must.
Bush II Doctrine New World Order; unilaterally when we can, multilaterally if we must.
16. Noteworthy propaganda campaigns, hoaxes, and other lies qua casus belli utilized by the United States:
It is well known that German Fascists transformed their buffoonish leader, Hitler, from a national joke into der Fuhrer die Reich by means of a) securing moneys from large industrialists and financiers (they liked his extremely rightwing ideas on race, labor, religion, nationalism, capitalism, imperialism, etc) and b) by using multiple propaganda hoaxes in order to sway domestic opinion.
The Reichstag fire in 1933 allowed for Hitler to be proclaimed leader of the state as well as for the Night of the Long Knives the following year (violence against leftists) and all of the anti-jewish bullshit that came soon after. As we all know, the Reichstag was burned by fascist thugs and blamed on communists; they even got a disabled Dutch guy to admit to both arson and communismsmoking gun! woohoo!
In 1938, the Nazis claimed that they needed to perform a humanitarian intervention in the Sudetenland (in the modern Czech Republic) in order to stop ethnic violence. Of course, it was Nazi thugs carrying out the ethnic violence in the first place, but never mind that small detail.
In 1939, the fascists contrived Operation Canned Goodsa faked attack on a German border patrol, which was allegedly a surprise massacre, carried out by Polish military personnel. Evil Slavic Untermenschen Evildoer Terrorists! Too bad, however, that we now know those corpses in German uniform shown on Nazi TV to be dead Poles, kidnapped and murdered; the German public, though, went insane with jingoism, calling for invasions and genocide.
As we shall see, this is a technique learned by the Nazis from the masters of such things in the US (Hitler credited the development of the Final Solution to his study of US treatment of Native Americans), and something that was then perfected by the US after it recovered and reconciled with its mad dog Nazi assets during the Cold War.
The overall pattern is using irrelevant, misinterpreted, or completely fabricated events in order to convince all of the clarences (who had nothing to gain from militarism, but who were susceptible to jingoism, racism, ethnocentrism) that war is a great fucking idea! NB that many of these propaganda hoaxes seem to be more effective now than they were when first produced. Also NB, these are the times that the state was forced, for whatever reasons, to consult with the publiceither Congress or the people. Most US crimes are committed without recourse to either, or with only a general, vague acknowledgement: Oh, that CIA is just protecting Freedom from Evil! We cant tell you what theyre doing specifically, because that would compromise them to the Forces of Darkness!
1775 Britain: so it begins, and the story runs that Evildoer British imperialists took away Our Liberty, &c.; produced Evil Boston Massacres, Stamp Acts, Massachusetts Uprisings; and tried to import tea. While the British were certainly imperialistic, and tea is the mark of the ruling class in colonial times, we should take heed that the first offensive of the American War for Independence was a colonial invasion of Quebec. Huh? You mean, before they even signed the Declaration, the proto-United States was invading other countries? You bet. Whats at stake here is the Proclamation Line and the Quebec Act, both of which prevented the fledgling colonies from expanding. And be sure to recall that during the next US war, a conquest of Canada would again be attempted.
1812 Britain: ah tales of naval impressments. Too bad that this narrative, of war caused by US sailors being conscripted, like slaves, into the British privateering fleet, is a lie; too bad that the landowners all across the infant US wanted the British, French, Spanish, and natives off the continent so they could expand their holdings, import more slaves, and thereby make more money; too bad that plans for such expansion existed way before the declaration of hostilities. The keys here are Florida, the Caribbean, and the western frontier.
1846 Mexico: the US is forced to retaliate against the Mexicans, since Mexican troops ruthlessly attacked US regiments, who just happened to be occupying slave-owning Texas. Why would the Evildoers in Mexico do that? Not, I hope, because Texas was part of Mexico? Not, I fear, because Mexicans were anti-slavery (abolished since 1829)? Not, I believe, because the US had aggressively assaulted Mexico multiple times already, including the original secessionist agitation in Texas? No, none of that matters; theyre just Evil.
1898 Spain: the Remember the Maine! incident as well as Hearst newspapers proclaiming that Cuba needed a humanitarian interventionboth obvious lieshelp sway people in the US to genocidal furor. Enter Empire, the subjugation of the people of Guam, Puerto Rico, and Cuba, and the Philippine genocide.
1917 Central Powers: the Lusitania incident and the Zimmerman Telegram fire up US war fervor; too bad the Wilson administration provoked the Germans by aiding the British under a flag of neutrality, generated tons of anti-German racialist BS, and managed to invade every country in the Caribbean, including Mexico several times. Also, we neednt forget that the Wilsonian declaration of War was timed perfectly with Lenins April Theses. All in the name of protecting democracy, from Evildoers, no doubt! An honest student of history will note that its more like protecting certain segments of Kapital from others, whilst destroying genuine democratic resistance.
1918 USSR: Communists eat babies! Bolsheviks seek to conquer world! International Jewry grabs power in Russia! Reds to start war in India next! Socialism and incest: partners in Sin! So ran the newspapers, every day, in every city, after Czarist absolutism was broken by popular resistance, no thanks to the US. Wilsons administration used such imbecilic pretenses in a failed attempt to strangle bolshevism in its cradle, as one imperialist from a different genocidal nation put it. Of course, the real motives behind western intervention werent mentioned: Capital Capital Capital Capital.
1941 Axis Powers: the Pearl Harbor attack was known in advance, no matter how sudden or how much infamy Roosevelt would later claim for it. NB FDRs well-planned provocation strategy to ensure that Japan would attack the US, thus allowing the US to dictate terms to the rest of the world, which would be destroyed by wars end. NB that the overrated Operation Overlord was delayed just long enough for the Soviet Union to be shattered by Kapitals mad dog Hitler, but just timely enough to prevent the Soviets from taking out all of the fascists in Europe, from the Volga to Gibraltar.
1945 Japan: eventnukes; propaganda liesaving Japanese and American lives; bitter truthself-serving genocide and terrorism to intimidate Stalin. Only assholes can believe the US story here.
1950 DPRK: despite claims that the Totalitarian North ruthlessly invaded the Free South, it looks as though a communist North reacted to a long series of provocations carried out by a fascistic South, which included border skirmishes, coordinated raids, and artillery battery. But who cares? America to the rescue! Of fascism!
1952 East Germany: despite Soviet attempts to get out of Berlin, requiring only assurances from the US that Germany would be a) democratic, b) demilitarized, c) united, and d) neutral, the US insisted on the precarious, ignorant status quo, obviously preferring it to the just Soviet proposal. Up, then, went the Berlin Wall in 1961, which was called an act of tyranny by moronic US commentators, but was intended by the Soviet Union to keep fascists, CIA operatives, saboteurs, assassins, and other agents of Kapital away. This event is largely responsible for much escalation of the Cold War during 50s, which would predictably and wrongly be blamed on the USSR.
1953 Iran: Commies are gonna get us! Or so it was said by flag-waving retards. The unfortunate truth: a democratic regime thought it was allowed to use its own resources for its own benefit. The US disagreed with Mossadegh.
1954 Guatemala: Commies are gonna get us! Or so it was said by flag-waving retards. The unfortunate truth: a democratic regime thought it was allowed to use its own resources for its own benefit. The US disagreed with Arbenz.
1964 Vietnam: the USS Maddox got hit by some lightning, but LBJ thought itd be a good idea to bow before the banking cartels, the Seven Sisters, the Pentagon, and crusty McCarthyoids, thereby inventing the notion that the (repeat the old script) Red North ruthlessly invaded the Free Southor, at least they ruthlessly attacked an innocent US naval vessel in international waters. Turns out that there was no attack, that the ship was in Hanois waters, and was not-at-all-innocently deploying special forces and other anti-communist swine into the North for the normal roster of Kapitalist Karnage.
1973 Chile: Commies are gonna get us! Or so it was said by flag-waving retards. The unfortunate truth: a democratic regime thought it was allowed to use its own resources for its own benefit. The US disagreed with Allende.
1981 Nicaragua: Commies are gonna get us! Or so it was said by flag-waving retards. The unfortunate truth: a democratic regime thought it was allowed to use its own resources for its own benefit. The US disagreed with Ortega.
1983 Grenada: Commies are gonna get us! Or so it was said by flag-waving retards. The unfortunate truth: a democratic regime thought it was allowed to use its own resources for its own benefit. The US disagreed with Bishop.
1986 Libya: Evil Terrorist Nation! Quit doing Terrorist things! We will bomb you! Turns out that the Libyans werent responsible, after all, for the acts of terror of which theyd been accused. Hmm a high publicity bombing mission right in the middle of the Iran-Contra Affair? What a coincidence! And at a time when Gorbachev was making peaceful overtures and the US was in danger of having no enemies? Amazingly coincidental!
1989 Panama: They said that Noriega was an Evildoer Drugdealer! You must go Evil Doper! USA All The Way! Humanitarian Intervention! We should mention that Noriega was attempting to institute some democratic reforms and social services, had been a CIA asset, and largely oversaw US drug smugglingand could document his and US involvement in the Iran-Contra Affair. But why trouble anyone with the facts? Especially the fact that the true meaning of the words Operation Just Cause is that US Delta Force teams secretly attacked US Army units so that the US could claim Panamanian terrorists are shooting us!
1991 Kuwait: the famous dead babies hoax, which was revealed to be a lie. Other tidbits: Kuwait had provoked Iraq in numerous ways; Iraq got approval from its imperial master, the US, before invading; Bush had personal investments in the region; and US strategy had long called for a way to control the Gulf States directly. With the USSR gone and the Kuwait-Iraq border dispute, the US now had both pretext and opportunity.
1992 Bosnia: never mind all of the dead Serbs. Instead, check out this photo! The Evil Serb Evildoers have Evilly put some guy in a concentration camp at Trnopolje! Look at the barbed wire! Look at how starved he is! Oh wait a minute looks like that the barbed wire is around someones shed, that the photographer is in the shed, that the starving guy is a refugee on the outside of the barbed fence, that the headline Belsen 92 is a lie, that there were no concentration camps, and that the entire series of US operations in the early 1990s were resurrected Nazi policies on Yugoslavia, which still maintained some socialistic economic policies. Well, Ill be damned: another humanitarian intervention for Kapitalism.
1993 Somalia: Yet another Humanitarian intervention! Thing is, the famine was nearly over, the US wasnt anywhere near where it had been, the Somalis already hated the US for thrusting Barre on them, and the US was only there now for 1) oil prospecting, 2) uranium mining, 3) military basing, 4) public relations, and 5) a paid advertisement for the Pentagon, in Chairman of the Joint Chiefs Colin Powells cynical phrase..
1998 Sudan: Evil terrorists are making VX nerve gas in that big factory! Tomahawk it! Turns out, though, that the plant manufactured antibiotics for half the country. Given that the Sudan was in the midst of a disease crisis, the destruction of their medical infrastructure only served to exacerbate the problem. How many died as a result? Who knowsthe US, as is typical, doesnt care to investigate, apologize, or acknowledge.
1999 Kosovo: Humanitarian intervention! Now for something completely different. Racak, Srebrenica, Izbica, Trepcaall more complicated than they seem, as according to numerous international organizations, the FBI, and so on. Ethnic cleansing? Only if we are talking about the cleansing of Serbs by NATO. And the banner hoax here: the Serbian MIG, allegedly attacking civilians, is revealed as a fraud in state-press photos, which obviously display English writing on the alleged fuselage.
2001 Afghanistan: Evil Terrorists got us! We will get them back! Of course, the true story is much more complicated, involving US complicity, deception, and strategic planning at all levels, as noted in the recent historical record (cf. the complete 9/11 timeline).
2002 Iraq?: Evil! Smite Evil! Get oil! Did I say oil? I meant that Evildoer tried to kill my daddy! One excellent hoax, besides the manufactured general threat rhetoric, is the alleged 15 kg of weapons-grade uranium recovered in Turkey in mid 2002, allegedly bound for Iraq from Eastern Europe. Too bad that this weapons-grade uranium has Made in West Germany written on itin English.
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International Socialist Review
New Left Review
US interventions, geostrategy, and other crimes:
general history and current global affairs:
Efter Indymedia, Ecuador
Netavisen 25. november 2002